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Chapter 15

PSY399 - personality chapter 15

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY399H5
Professor
Adams
Semester
Summer

Description
Personality
 
 Definition
 • personality
is
an
individual's
unique
thoughts,
feelings
and
behavior
that
persist
over
time
and
 different
situations
 • personality
theorists
attempt
to
describe
how
individuals
remain
consistent
in
their
thoughts,
 feelings
and
behaviors
 • they
also
attempt
to
explain
how
people
differ
in
their
personalities
 
 Six
Psychological
Perspectives
 • There
are
six
main
schools
of
thought
regarding
personality:
 – psychodynamic:
focuses
on
unconscious
motives
and
structures
to
explain
personality

 – humanistic:
focuses
on
the
fundamental
goodness
of
people
and
their
attempts
to
strive
for
 higher
levels
of
functioning

 – constitution
(or
type):
proposes
a
relationship
between
body
type
and
personality
 characteristics

 – trait:
examines
stable
characteristics
of
the
person
that
help
explain
behavior

 – social­cognitive:
focuses
on
environmental
contingencies
and
accompanying
mental
processes
 to
explain
personality

 – behavioral:
focuses
on
the
fundamentals
of
learning
to
explain
behavior
 
 Psychodynamic:
Sigmund
Freud
 • the
most
well‐known
psychodynamic
theorist
if
Sigmund
Freud.

 • Freud
focused
on
the
power
of
inner
forces
as
motivators
to
shape
personality
 
 • he
believed
that
these
unconscious
motivations
could
be
examined
through
the
use
of
 psychoanalysis,
which
includes
three
main
techniques:
 – free
association:
allowing
the
patient
to
say
whatever
comes
to
mind

 – dream
analysis:
attempts
to
examine
the
latent
(hidden)
content
of
a
dream
through
 examining
its
manifest
(remembered)
dream
elements

 – hypnosis:
a
state
of
suggestibility
induced
by
the
therapist
(learned
through
his
studies
with
 Jean
Martin
Charcot)

 
 • through
his
association
with
his
mentor,
Josef
Breuer,
Freud's
psychodynamic
theory
is
based
 on
a
few
key
findings
of
Breuer's
that
Freud
elaborate
on:
 1. underlying
symptoms
can
be
relieved
through
the
expression
of
the
strangulated
affect,
 or
bring
these
unconscious
motives
to
the
surface‐‐the
process
of
purging
these
emotions
 is
called
catharsis
 2. the
symptoms
someone
displays
have
an
emotional
logic
and
the
key
to
psychoanalysis
is
 to
unlock
the
mysteries
of
these
symptoms

 3. a
lot
of
abnormal
behaviors
are
a
result
of
emotionally
abrasive
experiences
in
our
 childhood;
they
unconsciously
grow
into
abnormal
behaviors
as
the
person
gets
older
 
 • Freud’s
theories
are
based
on
psychic
determinism,
or
the
assumption
that
our
early
life
 determines
our
behavior
and
unconscious
reactions.

 
 • Freud
believed
we
all
had
certain
drives
and
instincts
which
guide
our
behavior:
 – eros:
the
life
instinct
which
seeks
to
preserve
the
species;
hunger,
thirst
and
sex;
tied
to
the
 libido

 – libido:
our
sexual
energy

 – thanatos:
our
desire
to
return
to
the
womb;
manifested
in
aggressive
and
destructive
behavior
 
 
 
 
 • Freud
believed
that
everyone
progressed
through
five
stages
of
psychosexual
development

 • these
stages
are:
 – oral
stage
(0‐1
years):
achieves
libidinal
satisfaction
from
oral
activities
such
as
eating
and
 sucking

 – anal
stage
(1‐3
years):
autonomy
is
developed
through
bladder
and
bowel
control

 – phallic
stage
(3‐6
years):
the
child
comes
to
develop
a
sexual
attachment
to
the
opposite
sexed
 parent
and
to
see
the
same
sexed
parent
as
a
rival
for
those
affections

 • Oedipus
Complex:
boys
want
to
possess
the
mother
and
see
their
father
as
a
sexual
rival

 • Electra
Complex:
girls
want
to
possess
the
father
and
see
their
mother
as
a
sexual
rival

 – latency
period
(6‐puberty):
a
period
of
sexual
rest
for
both
sexes
where
sex‐role
identities
 develop

 – genital
stage
(puberty
on):
a
reawakening
of
sexual
urges
and
a
desire
for
heterosexual
 relationships

 
 • Freud
believed
that
the
mind
or
our
personality
was
made
up
of
three
constructs:
 – the
id:
the
child
within
us;
the
primitive,
unconscious
part
of
our
mind
that
seeks
expression
of
 wishes
and
emotions
(called
the
pleasure
principle)

 – the
ego:
uses
the
reality
principle
to
satisfy
the
id
and
superego
safely
and
effectively
in
the
 real
world;
the
mediator
that
develops
with
experience
and
is
the
rational
part
of
our
mind

 – the
superego:
society's
values
and
morals;
our
conscience;
the
parent
within
us
which
is
 guided
by
the
idealistic
principle
 
 • Individuals
constantly
strive
to
present
their
best
self
and
reduce
anxiety
 • Freud
called
this
preserving
ego
integrity
 • To
do
this,
individuals
employ
a
variety
of
defense
mechanisms:
 – repression:
involuntary
memory
loss
about
something
anxiety‐producing

 – suppression:
voluntarily
not
thinking
about
something
anxiety‐producing

 – denial:
not
facing
up
to
the
reality
of
a
situation

 – rationalization:
making
up
excuses
for
our
actions

 – displacement:
rechanneling
aggression
in
a
negative
way;
taking
our
frustrations
out
on
a
 substitute
person
or
object

 – sublimation
(also
called
compensation):
rechanneling
aggression
in
a
neutral
or
positive
way

 – projection:
putting
onto
others
our
own
tendencies,
motives
or
traits

 – reaction
formation:
behaving
outwardly
that
opposite
of
how
we
inwardly
feel

 – fantasy:
escaping
reality
through
daydreaming
or
using
the
imagination

 – procrastination:
putting
off
something
anxiety‐producing
until
a
later
time

 – fixation:
becoming
stuck
at
a
specific
stage
of
psychosexual
development
because
it
is
safer
for
 ego
integrity

 – regression:
returning
to
an
earlier
stage
of
psychosexual
development
 
 • neo­Freudians
refined
and
developed
Freud's
theories
 • they
did
not
agree
that
our
libido
guided
the
majority
of
our
actions
but
found
other
sources
for
 our
motives
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Freud’s
Consciousness
Diagram
p.
597
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Psychodynamic:
Carl
Jung
 • Carl
Jung
was
Freud's
handpicked
successor
in
the
field
of
psychodynamic
theory‐‐he
differed
 from
Freud
on
several
fundamental
issues.
 • Jung
believed
that
our
personality
or
mind
was
made
up
of
three
constructs.

 • he
differed,
however,
from
Freud's
concepts
of
the
id,
ego
and
superego.
Jung's
three
components
 were:
 – conscious
ego:
our
consciousness
awareness
of
ourselves
and
how
we
present
our
self
to
the
 outside
world;
Freudian
defense
mechanisms
are
employed
to
preserve
ego
integrity

 – personal
unconscious:
motives
and
behaviors
that
are
unique
to
the
individual
hidden
away
in
 the
unconscious

 – collective
unconscious:
racial
memory;
our
understanding
of
mankind's
past;
our
intuitive
 tendencies
toward
universal,
reoccurring
symbols
called
archetypes
 
 • some
of
the
more
notable
archetypal
characters
found
in
literature
are:
 – hero:
saves
the
day;
defeats
evil;
protects
the
weak

 – mother:
surrounds,
encompasses
and
protects
the
individual;
can
be
both
a
person
or
an
 institution

 – shadow:
the
dark
side
of
our
nature;
our
hidden,
bad
tendencies
we
do
not
like
to
acknowledge

 – trickster/magician:
plays
sly
pranks
and
malicious
tricks;
usually
represented
as
half
man,
half
 animal

 – child­god:
an
individual
who
has
powers
or
knowledge
beyond
their
years

 – anima:
the
projection
of
femininity
from
a
man's
collective
unconscious;
seeing
in
others
our
 own
opposite
sexed
characteristics

 – animus:
the
projection
of
masculinity
from
a
woman's
collective
unconscious;
seeing
in
others
 our
own
opposite
sexed
characteristics

 – persona:
the
Greek
word
for
"mask;"
the
different
faces
we
put
on
in
different
environments

 – self:
the
desire
for
unity
where
the
personal
and
collective
unconscious
intersect
 
 • Jung
believed
in
mandala
symbolism,
our
striving
for
completeness
or
wholeness
 • mandala
is
the
Sanskrit
word
for
"circle"
or
desire
for
wholeness
is
represented
in
art
through
 complete
symbols
such
as
the
circle
 • Jung
also
believed
that
what
most
people
felt
were
coincidence
were
actually
acts
of
synchronicity
 • this
is
the
term
he
used
to
define
an
individual's
unconscious
awareness
of
a
greater
 understanding
in
the
world,
sort
of
a
tapping
into
the
consciousness
of
the
universe
 
 • Jung
also
examined
personality
types
and
temperaments
 • he
believed
that
personality
traits
lay
along
a
continuum
and
individuals
tended
to
fall
 somewhere
along
this
continuum
 • the
opposite
ends
of
this
continuum
he
called
polar
opposites
 

 Psychodynamic:
Alfred
Adler
 • Alfred
Adler
believed
that
individuals
possess
innate
positive
motives
that
are
the
primary
 determinant
of
our
personality
 • our
major
goal
was
the
achievement
of
perfection
 • we
would
strive
to
overcome
personal
and
social
obstacles
through
compensation
 • Adler
later
modified
his
theories
and
believed
that
individuals
attempted
to
overcome
feelings
of
 inferiority,
what
he
termed
the
inferiority
complex
 • later,
he
revised
his
theories
again
and
focused
on
how
the
individual
strives
for
personal
and
 social
perfection
 • to
help
us
achieve
this,
we
develop
fictional
finalisms
which
are
goals
we
set
to
guide
our
 behaviors
 
 • Adler
also
believed
that
birth
order
had
an
impact
on
an
individual’s
development
 • in
general,
younger
siblings
would
have
a
more
difficult
time
than
older
siblings
 
 • Adler
believed
in
a
style
of
life,
the
way
in
which
an
individual
expresses
their
creativity
and
 thereby
achieves
superiority
in
their
own
unique
way
 
 Psychodynamic:
Karen
Horney
 • Karen
Horney
thought
that
basic
anxiety
was
a
greater
motivating
force
than
our
libido
 • this
may
develop
in
children
whose
parents
are
overly
oppressive,
indifferent
or
inconsistent
in
 their
child‐rearing
 • in
coping
with
these,
individuals
develop
one
of
three
neurotic
trends,
irrational
approaches
to
 dealing
with
this
anxiety
 • Horney
believed
that,
in
interacting
with
others,
we
tend
to
develop
into
the
following
types:
 – compliant
type:
moving
toward
others
in
attempts
to
be
submissive

 – aggressive
type:
moving
against
others
in
attempts
to
gain
power

 – detached
type:
moving
away
from
others
to
avoid
being
hurt

 • Horney
focused
on
cultural
determinants
of
behavior
and,
as
such,
believed
that
the
individual
 could
change
throughout
the
life
cycle
 
 Psychodynamic:
Erik
Erikson
 • Erik
Erikson
believed
that
individuals
went
through
eight
crises
throughout
their
lives
in
which
a
 positive
or
negative
resolution
to
the
crisis
occurred.

 • these
are
called
the
"Eight
Ages
of
Man,"
and
make
up
Erikson's
eight
stages
of
psychosocial
 development
 • the
stages
are:
 – trust
versus
mistrust
(0
‐
1):

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