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Chapter 2

chapter 2 on memory

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Unit 2 Notes: Memory Process of Memory • implicit memory--our recollection of information that was not consciously encoded and stored • explicit memory is our recollection of information that has been consciously encoded, stored and retrieved • includes three components: – encoding--processing information and integrating it into our existing storehouse of memory – storage--the process of keeping information in memory – retrieval--recalling information from memory when it is required – for these processes to be activated, the organism must attend to certain information for further processing--called attention • information is moved into memory is through: – rote rehearsal which involves repeating the information over and over again – elaborative rehearsal in which information is made meaningful by linking it to information already in our long term memory stores • the serial position effect involves both the primacy and recency effect • the primacy effect--words at the beginning of a list will be remembered better because more rehearsal is taking place • the recency effect--words at the end of a list will be remembered best of all because they are most recently placed in memory (insert diagram of the three stages of memory here) Stage 1: Sensory Memory • Stage 1-- sensory memory involves storing information for a very short period of time: – iconic (visual) memory lasts about one half second. – echoic (auditory) memory last about three to five seconds • the initial tests of sensory memory involved looking at visual display like this for a fraction of a second and then being asked to recall all the letters: F B Y H T Q N K P • subjects could consistently only remember about four letters • this is called the whole-report method • George Sperling used the same 3 x 3 matrix but played a high, medium or low tone when the letters were flashed--these tones corresponded to the top, middle or bottom line of letters F B Y H T Q N K P • subjects consistently remembered all three letters, regardless of what tone was played during the experiment • Sperling’s method is called the partial-report method • this helped to establish nine items as the capacity for sensory memory • the whole-report method failed because, by the time subjects reported four letters, the rest of the letters had faded from memory • the partial-report method eliminated this memory fade Stage 2: Short Term Memory • Stage 2-- short term memory, or” working memory”, briefly stores and processes selected information from the sensory registers • research indicates: – STM has limited storage capacity – STM can store 5-9 chunks of information. •chunking involves grouping information into meaningful units for easier handling, like area codes or zip codes – information in STM is forgotten in 15-20 seconds if it is not rehearsed – phonological (or acoustical) encoding is the predominant means by which information is stored in STM Stage 3: Long Term Memory • Stage 3-- long term memory stores information indefinitely and has an unlimited capacity. • research has indicated specific qualities of long term memory: – some psychologists believe the information is never truly forgotten but that it just cannot be accessed in LTM – some psychologists believe that our memories about specific events are fused with our hopes, expectations and unique perspectives so that they are often quite different from the actual event (insert diagram of long term memory here) Types of Memory • there are four types of LTM: – procedural memory--contains learned associations between stimuli and responses, like how to tie your shoes or drive a car – semantic memory--stores general facts and information, like information you need to learn for a test – episodic memory--stores more specific information that has personal meaning, like going on your first date – declarative memory--our memory of day-to-day conversations and events Eidetic and Flashbulb Memory • eidetic imagery--commonly called photographic memory, this is the ability to recall specific details of information • flashbulb memory--this is a vivid recollection of a significant event from episodic memory Explicit Encoding and Retrieval • explicit methods of retrieval from LTM: – include recognition and recall – usually entail information in semantic memory • recognition--identifying previously learned material – for example, multiple choice tests where there is a question followed by four or five possible answers – easier than recall because most or all of the retrieval cues are present • recall--coming up the information purely from memory – more difficult because fewer retrieval cues are available • two types of recall tasks: – free recall allows the subject to recall information in any order (e.g. words memorized from a list in any order) – serial recall requires the subject to recall information in a specific order (e.g. words memorized from a list in the order in which they appear on the list) Implicit Encoding and Retrieval • implicit methods--involve the inner workings of memory organization and recall that are not so overt • one foundation of learning theory is that memory will incre
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