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Chapter 3

chapter 3 on thinking and language

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY399H5
Professor
Adams
Semester
Summer

Description
Unit
3
Notes:

Cognition
and
Language
 
 Cognition
 • cognition
is
defined
as
the
processes
whereby
we
acquire
and
use
knowledge
 • complexity
is
defined
as
a
set
of
related
ideas
that
have
a
common
emotional
tone
 • metacognition
is
the
act
of
thinking
about
how
we
think,
knowing
how
we
arrived
at
decisions,
 and
an
understanding
of
the
decision
making
process
involved
in
solutions
 
 Thinking
 • convergent
thinking‐‐whenever
thinking
is
directed
toward
one
correct
solution
to
a
problem,
as
 is
the
case
with
deductive
and
inductive
reasoning
 • divergent
thinking‐‐thinking
that
meets
the
criteria
of
originality,
inventiveness
and
flexibility
 – divergent
thinking
results
in
many
possible
correct
solutions
to
a
problem
and
is
involved
in
 creativity
 
 Reasoning
 • there
are
three
main
types
of
reasoning
we
employ
to
solve
problems:
 – deductive
reasoning:
goes
from
general
to
specific,
like
taking
the
clues
to
a
murder
mystery
 and
figuring
out
who
committed
the
crime

 – inductive
reasoning:
goes
from
specific
to
general,
like
taking
the
terms
image,
prototype
and
 phonemes,
and
knowing
that
they
all
pertain
to
the
concept
language

 – evaluative
reasoning:
rely
on
value
judgments
or
what
is
important
to
the
individual,
like
 which
is
the
best
car
to
buy
for
$10,000
 
 Information
Processing
 • there
are
four
main
ways
of
processing
information:
 – controlled
processing:
consciously
processing
information,
like
following
the
steps
in
baking
a
 new
dessert
or
concentrating
on
shifting,
braking
and
accelerating
when
learning
to
drive
a
 manual
transmission
 – automatic
processing:
information
processing
that
one
is
not
consciously
aware
of,
like
 hopping
on
a
bike
and
riding
away,
not
noticing
your
steering,
balance
and
pedaling
 – serial
processing:
processing
information
in
order;
frequently
the
solution
to
one
step
provides
 information
for
the
next,
like
in
applying
a
math
formula
 – parallel
processing:
processing
many
things
at
once,
like
you
do
when
walking
across
campus
 and
processing
the
location
of
fellow
classmates,
the
terrain,
your
direction,
etc.

 
 • Karl
Dunker
proposed
three
stages
involved
in
information
processing:
 – preparation
stage:
assessing
the
task
and
what
needs
to
be
accomplished

 – production
stage:
producing
possible
solutions
to
the
task
in
question

 – judgment
stage:
applying
each
solution
to
see
if
it
solves
the
task

 
 • other
theorists
have
added
the
incubation
period
when
individuals
separate
their
problem‐solving
 efforts
and
take
a
break
 – frequently,
coming
back
to
a
problem‐solving
task
after
a
break
increases
the
likelihood
of
 solving
the
problem
 
 Problem
Solving
Strategies
 • problem
representation:
assessing
and
understanding
what
problem
needs
to
be
solved

 • algorithm:
step‐by‐step
methods
for
problem
solving
that
guarantee
a
solution,
like
a
math
 formula

 • heuristic:
rules
of
thumb
that
assist
in
solving
problems
but
do
not
guarantee
a
correct
solution,
 like
the
phrase
"i
before
e
except
after
c"

 – availability
heuristic‐‐making
decisions
on
the
most
readily
available
information
(e.g.
are
 there
more
words
that
begin
with
the
letter
K
or
have
K
as
their
third
letter?)
 – representativeness
heuristic‐‐making
decisions
based
on
stereotypical
or
representative
 information
 • subgoals:
intermediate
goals
between
the
ultimate
goal
and
beginning
the
problem
solving
 process

 • means­ends
analysis:
assessing
where
one
is
in
the
problem
solving
process
and
how
much
further
 they
need
to
go
to
reach
their
goal

 • analogy:
the
use
of
previous
strategies
in
solving
current
problems

 • working
backwards:
understanding
the
goal
and
then
breaking
down
problem
solving
into
the
 steps
to
get
there

 • trial
and
error:
systematically
trying
possible
solutions
until
the
correct
one
is
found;
this
works
if
 there
is
a
possible
solution
present

 
 Problem
Solving
Obstacles
 • functional
fixedness:
seeing
only
one,
fixed
function
for
something;
not
thinking
divergently

 • set:
using
previous
knowledge
in
problem
solving
that
may
interfere
with
solving
the
current
 problem

 • confirmation
bias:
the
tendency
to
look
for
evidence
in
support
of
a
belief
and
to
ignore
evidence
 that
would
disprove
a
belief

 
 Language
 • language
is
defined
as
a
flexible
system
of
communication
that
uses
sounds,
rules,
gestures,
or
 symbols
to
convey
information
 • there
are
three
main
theories
on
language
development:
 – learning
theory‐‐advocated
by
Skinner,
language
is
acquired
through
modeling,
classical
 conditioning
and/or
operant
conditioning
 – cognitive
development
theory‐‐advocated
by
Piaget,
language
occurs
toward
the
end
of
the
 sensorimotor
period
of
cognitive
development,
and
continues
based
on
the
individual’s
 cognitive
level
and
ability
to
process
symbolic
thought
 – nativist
theory­­advocated
by
Chomsky,
believed
there
is
an
innate,
inborn,
biological
device
to
 acquire
language
 
 Word
and
Sentence
Structures
 • phonemes
are
the
basic
building
blocks
of
any
language
 – they
are
the
smallest
units
of
sound,
like
b,
a,
and
t
 • putting
these
units
of
sound
together
into
a
meaningful
units,
like
th
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