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Chapter 11

PSY399 - intelligence & creativity chapter 11

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY399H5
Professor
Adams
Semester
Summer

Description
Intelligence and Creativity Intelligence • there are many definitions of intelligence • the broadest definition of intelligence--the ability to profit from experience – this encompasses book learning and real-life skills • to determine intelligence, intelligence tests are administered – these render a statistical score called the intelligence quotient (IQ) • intelligence tests can be group tests or individual, written tests or oral • the field of psychological testing is called psychometrics Types of Tests • aptitude tests--measure potential or ability (e.g. SAT) • achievement tests--measures what has been learned or accomplished (e.g. your midterm exam) • speed tests--consist of a large number of questions in a short amount of time – the goal is to how quickly one can solve problems • power tests--consist of a large number of questions of increasing difficulty – the goal is to see the level of difficulty one can solve Older Theories • Charles Spearman--believed that intelligence was like a well that flowed through every action – our special intellectual abilities "flowed like streams” • Raymond Cattell--believed that there were two clusters of mental abilities: – crystallized intelligence: composed of reasoning, verbal and numerical abilities – fluid intelligence: spatial and visual imagery, and rote memory • not quite so general as Spearman, L.L. and Thelma Thurstone believed that there were seven distinct factors to general intelligence: – spatial ability – perceptual speed – numerical ability – verbal meaning – memory – word fluency – reasoning Newer Theories • Robert Sternberg--proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence • intelligence is comprised of three kinds of intelligence: – componential intelligence: most of the abilities traditionally defined as intelligence, such as the Thurstones – experiential intelligence: the ability to adjust to new experiences, adapt and gain insights on new experiences – contextual intelligence: matching situations to accentuate your strengths and minimize your weaknesses • perhaps the most influential modern theorist is Howard Gardner. Gardner believes in eight, distinct multiple intelligences: – logical-mathematical intelligence (math and science-oriented) – linguistic intelligence (language skills-oriented) – spatial intelligence (artists) – musical intelligence (musicians) – bodily-kinesthetic intelligence (athletes and dancers) – interpersonal intelligence (between two people) – intrapersonal intelligence (understanding ourselves) – naturalist (understanding nature) Intelligence Tests • the first test of intelligence was the Binet-Simon Scale in 1905 – this was devised by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon – it consisted of 30 tests arranged in order of increasing difficulty – Binet developed the concept of mental age • this was later used in 1916 by L.M. Terman in devising the intelligence quotient or IQ • Terman adapted the Binet-Simon scale while working at Stanford University – this became the now famous Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test, currently in its fourth edition • the formula for IQ is mental age divided by chronological age times 100 • average IQ is 100 – if someone was 17 years old chronologically and had a mental age of 17, 17 divided by 17 is 1, times 100 would be 100 • this formula became somewhat problematic because a child's and, especially an adult's, intellectual growth is not orderly. • David Weschler developed his own set of tests – one for adults (16 years and older) called the WAIS-III (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition) – one for children (ages 5-16) called the WISC-III (Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children 3rd Edition) – one for preschoolers called the WPPI-R (Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Revised) • both of these yield individual scores for verbal and performance information • Weschler based his IQ scores on a normal distribution or bell-shaped curve – on his tests, the standard deviation is 15, meaning that 68% of the population will fall within 85 and 115, or 1 standard deviation; 95% will fall within 2 standard deviations, and 99.7% within 3 standard deviations Bell Curve Diagram Validity • in examining intelligence tests, it is important that they are both valid and reliable • validity is the ability of a test to measure what it intends to measure – face validity refers to the test appearing to measure what it is designed to measure – content validity asks is the sample of questions is large enough and representative enough to measure what it intends to measure – criterion validity refers to that fact that scores on this measuring instrument are consistent with subjects' scores on other similar instruments (e.g. a subject scores roughly the same on two or more intelligence tests) – predictive validity predicts how well an individual will do on a similar test of knowledge or skill – construct (or convergent) validity asks how well performance on the test relates to what is being measured (e.g. if problem solving skills are related to intelligence, individuals who score high on this test should score high on intelligence tests as well) Reliability • reliability is the ability of a test to provide consistent and stable scores over time • test-retest is commonly used, where a subject takes a test on two different occasions – it is expected they will score consistently • split-half reliability involves dividing the test questions in half, say odds and evens, and consistency is compared • alternate-form method involves giving two
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