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University of Toronto Mississauga

Chapter # 10: Abnormal Psych -focus on brain chemistry, esp. in regard to serotonin and norepinephine Medical Model -correlation b/t lower than normal activity levels of those neurotransmitters and presence of depression Rosenhan Study -1970s visited diff mental institutions and reported they were hearing voices -all admitted with a preliminary diagnosis of schizophrenia -once inside institution , pseudopatients returned to normal behavior -patients for 3 weeks but no staff ever “caught on” they were healthy -several actual patients expressed doubt about pseudopatients’ mental illness but it seems that label to a person influences how each of his subsequent behaviors is perceived -patients released, told that condition was “in remission”, labels stick DSM – IV -American Psychiatric Association’s handbook for identification and classification of behavioral abnormalities -contains detailed descriptions of every psychological affliction -Thomas Szasz says book provides labels for behaviors that are not disorders; book causes as many problems as it solves: people feel compelled to live up to expectations that accompany disease -used to classify behaviors across 5 dimensions or axis Axis I: major disorders, schizophrenia, delirium and dementia, states of DSM – IV Axis I, II, III, IV, V perceptual and cognitive disruption; eating and sleeping disorders Axis II: personality disorders, avoidant and dependent personalities Axis III: physical disorders that impact behavior; not limited to disorders in brain Axis IV: asses level of psychological stress person is experiencing due to factors evaluated by first three axes Axis V: represents overall assessment of person’s level of functioning criteria for -atypical: unusual, most people don’t do it -disturbing: makes others feel uncomfortable determining -maladaptive: extremes of mood are pervasive and damage healthy disordered functioning behavior -unjustifiable: irrational, indefensible Chapter # 10: Abnormal Psych Phobia -persistent irrational fears of common events or objects -fear triggered by specific thing or object Ex. by specific animals, heights or enclosed spaces Specific Phobia Social Phobia -intense fear associated w/ public setting ex. fear of public speaking Agoraphobia -fear of being in open spaces or public places or other places from which escape is perceived to be difficult Obsessive -anxiety disorder -ex: washing hands -involuntary, persistent, undesirable obsessions one feels driven to carry Compulsive out; repetitive behaviors that are time consuming and maladaptive Disorder (OCD) -sufferer recognizes that obsessions/compulsions are irrational or maladaptive and does not want to have them but cannot control them Post-traumatic -caused by exposure to trauma (ex: war or violence) which leads to stress disorder recurring thoughts and anxiety linked to trauma (PTSD -decreased ability to function, detachment from reality -restlessness, irritability, sleep impairment, loss of concentration, nightmares, flashbacks Generalized -marked by ongoing tension, apprehension, and nervousness that does anxiety disorder not seem to be linked to any specific trigger or stimulus (”free-floating anxiety”) Panic Attacks -individual feels overwhelming sense of panic, fear, and desire to escape -lasts a few minutes, debilitating -sweating, increased heart rate, paralyzed with fright Delusions -false beliefs -ex: paranoid, believe that “Law enforcement officials have me under constant surveillance” -seeing, hearing, or sensing something that doesn’t actually exist Hallucinations “Word Salad” -symptom of schizophrenia -jumbled thinking -victim’s speech is loosely connected and words can be thrown together in odd, nonsensical ways Disorganized -symptoms: cognitive and emotional Schizophrenia -speech and thought are confused and emotions can be highly childlike or inappropriate Catatonic -flattened effect in which the victim demonstrates no emotion or response and may even “freeze” in odd, contorted positions Schizophrenia -marked by stupor and rigid body Chapter # 10: Abnormal Psych Positive and -positive symptoms: suffere
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