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Chapter 3

SOC100H5 Chapter 3: Sociology Chapter 3 Notes

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Nathan Innocente

Sociology Chapter 3 Notes Sept, 19 , 2016 Socialization Social Isolation and Socialization: Wild Boy of Averyon Socialization: The process by which people learn their culture. They do so by (1) entering into and disengaging from a succession of roles and (2) becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others. Role: A set of expected behaviours, or the behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society. Rene Spitz conducted a study where she compared children who were being raised in an orphanage with children who were being raised in a nursing home attached to a womens prison. In summary, without childhood socialization, most of our human potential remains undeveloped The Crystallization of SelfIdentity Formation of a sense of self is continued in adolescence. The crystallization Is just one episode in a lifelong process of socialization Many people can remember experiences from their youth that helped crystallize their self identity. A sociologist once wrote that the central growth process in adolescence is to define the self through the clarification of experience and to establish selfesteem. In the 1960s, Harry and Margaret Hallow placed baby rhesus monkeys in various conditions of isolation to study the animals reactions. They discovered that baby monkeys raised with an artificial mother made of wire mesh, wooden head, and the nipple of a feeding tube for a breast were later unable to interact normally with other monkeys. However, when the artificial monkey was covered with a soft terry cloth, the infant clung to it in comfort and later exhibited less emotional distress. Infant monkeys preferred the cloth mother even when it had less milk than the wire mother. Harlows concluded that emotional development requires affectionate cradling. Socialization process; First, Review the main theories of how a sense of self develops during early childhood Then, Discuss the operation and relative influence of societys main socializing institutions or agents of socialization: families, schools, peer groups, mass media. In these settings, we learn how to control impulse, think of ourselves as members of different groups value certain ideas, and perform various roles. Institutions give mixed messages; they teach children and adolescences different and contradictory lessons. Although recent developments give us more freedom to decide who we are, they can make socialization more disorienting than ever Finally, in the concluding section of this chapter, we examine how decreasing supervision and guidance by adult family members, increasing assumption of adult responsibilities by youths,
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