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Chapter 1-12

Full SOC100 Glossary (Chapters 1-12).pdf

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC100H5
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Jayne Baker

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SOC100Y GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMSRehan HamidaniSOCIOLOGICAL COMPASSCHAPTER 1 A Sociology The systematic study of human behaviour in social contextSocial Solidarity Refers to 1 the degree to which group members share beliefs and values and 2 the intensity and frequency of their interactionValues Ideas about what is good and bad right and wrongTheory A tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are related Altruistic Suicide Occurs in settings that exhibit very high levels of social solidarity according to Durkheim In other words altruistic suicide results from norms very tightly governing behaviourEgoistic Suicide Results from the poor integration of people into society because of weak social ties to others according to Durkheim Occurs in societies with low social solidarityAnomic Suicide Occurs in settings that exhibit low levels of social solidarity according to Durkheim Anomic suicide results from vaguely dened norms governing behaviour Positivism The idea that research is objective and value freethis was Durkheims interest he wanted to bring this to the social worldSocial Structures Relatively stable patterns of social relationsSociological Imagination The quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures Microstructures The patterns of relatively intimate social relations formed during facetoface interactions Families friendship circles and work associations are all examples of microstructures Macrostructures Overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above a persons circle of intimates and acquantainces Macrostructures include classes bureaucracies and power systems such as patriarchyPatriarchy The traditional system of economic and political inequality between men and women Global Structures Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level They include international organizations patterns of worldwide travel and communication and the economic relations among countries Industrial Revolution Often regarded as the most important event in world history since the development of agriculture and cities the Industrial Revolution refers to the rapid economic transformation that began in Britain around 1775 It involved the largescale application of science and technology to industrial processes the creation of factories and the formation of the working class SOC100Y GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMSRehan HamidaniFunctionalism Theory that human behaviour is governe by relatively stable social structures It underlines how social structures maintain or undermine social stability It emphasizes that social structures are based mainly on shared values or preferences And it suggests that reestablishing equilibrium can best solve most social problemsConict Theory Generally focuses on large macrolevel structures such as the relations among classes It shows how major patterns of inequality in society produce social stability in some circumstances and social change in others It stresses how members of priviledged groups try to maintain their advantages while subordinate groups struggle to acquire advantages And it typically leads to the suggestion that eliminating priviledge will lower the level of conict and increase the sum total of human welfare Class Conict The struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes Class Consciousness Awareness of belonging to the social class of which one is a member thth and 17 century protestant belief that religious doubts can be Protestant Ethic The 16reduced and a state of grace assured if people work dilligently and live ascetically According to Weber the Protestant work ethic had the unintended effect of increasing savings and investment and thus stimulating capitalist growth Symbolic Interactionism Theory that focuses on facetoface communication in microlevel social settings It emphasizes that an adequate explanation of social behavious requires understanding the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances rather than merely reacting to them And by underscoring the subjective meanings people create in small social settings it validates unpopular and unofcial viewpoints increasing our understanding and tolerance of people who may be different from us Feminist Theory View that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a persons opportinities in life It holds that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention It examines the operation of patriarchy in both micro and macro settings And it contends that existing patterns of gender inequality can and should be changed for the benet of all members of societyResearch The process of systematically observing reality to assess the validity of a theory Experiment A carefully controlled articial situation that allows researchers to isolate hypothesized causes and measure their effects preciselyVariable A concept that can take on more than one valueRandomization In an experiment assigning individuals to groups by chance processes Dependent Variable The presumed effect in a causeandeffect relationshipExperimental Group The group that is exposed to the independent variable in an experiment
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