Life expectancy the average age at death of the members of a population. In 1831, canada, age expectancy was ~40yo for men and 42yo for women. The story of the black death can"t help struck by the superstition and ignorance surrounding the treatment of the ill in medieval times. Remedies were often herbal but also included earth worms, urine, and animal excrement. The social causes of illness and death: social causes, 1. Human-environmental factors health risks arise from how human activity shapes the environments that people inhabit: 2. Factors related to the public health and health care systems the state of a nation"s health depends partly on public and private efforts to improve people"s well-being and treat their illnesses. Environmental racism the tendency to heap environmental dangers on the disadvantaged. Public health system comprises government-run programs that ensure access to clean drinking water, basic sewage and sanitation services, and inoculation against infectious diseases.