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Chapter 3

Chapter 3- SOC 100 .docx

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Ashley Monks

Naveen 1 Chapter 3- Socialization Social Isolation and Socialization - The wild boy of Aveyron, raised in isolation from other humans beings, did not develop normally - The ability to learn culture and become human, requires socialization - Socialization: process by which people learn their culture - Socialization done by (1) entering into and disengaging from a succession of roles (2) becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others - Role: behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society - Rene Spitz natural experiment on orphanage and nursing home infants - Orphanage children were isolated with a sheet vs. nursing home infants interacted w/ mother in prison, watched other children, exposed to socialization - Results: - Nursing children: lower death rate than orphans, walked/talked normal, played with genitals at 1 year, normal for children - Orphanage children: less demanding, by 9-12 months infant susceptible to infections, higher death, only 8 percent walking, orphans began genital play 4 year, indication of sexual impairment Rhesus Monkeys - Harry and Margaret put monkeys with wire mother and soft cushion mother, monkeys preferred soft cushion mother even when soft mother had less milk The Crystallization of self-identity - One episode in the process of socialization - Formation of a sense of self continues in adolescence - Remembering experiences from their youth helps crystallize ones self-identity - Robert Brym, was unknown kid, took part in one play in grade 10, had the lead, developed sense of identity - “The central growth process in adolescence is to define the self through the clarification of experience and to establish self-esteem” (Friedenberg) The Symbolic Interactionist Foundations of childhood socialization - Self: set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings Freud - Austrian psycho analyst, first social-scientific interpretation of how self emerges - Infants demand immediate gratification and begin to form self image when demands are denied - Infant develops that its needs is differ from parents, independent existence, develops sense of morality, appropriate behavior - Psychological mechanism develops which balances pleasure-seeking and restraining parts of self - Social interaction can allow self to emerge Cooley - Looking-glass self: our feelings about who we are depend largely on how we see ourselves evaluated by others (in people gestures and reactions to us, like a mirror) - Founder of symbolic Interactionist tradition - Symbolic interactionism: idea that in face to face communication, people engage in creative process of attaching meaning to things Mead - I, subjective aspect of self present from birth - Me, Objective sense of self emerges through social interaction - Source of me is one’s ability to “take the role of the other”, view from another’s shoes - Self emerges from people using symbols, like words and gestures to communicate, which follows the me, that develops gradually form social interaction Meads Four Stages of Development - Self develops in four stages 1. Children imitate significant others, like mother and father 2. Use imagination to pretend to be others in games (playing house, school) 3. Children, age 7, learn to play complex games that require them to simultaneously take role of several other people (E.g. Baseball) 4. Children able to think complexly, take the role of generalized other: a person’s image of cultural standards and how they are applied to him or her Naveen 2 Gender Differences - Social position affects socialization - Carol Gilligan research show boys and girls develop a different sense of self due to cultural standards - Ideal women viewed as eager to please, not assertive, more male teachers reinforces this view to girls - Research shows girls have less self-esteem than boys Civilization differences - Sociological factors explain why civilizations have different ways of thinking & cognitive styles - Chinese  Has rice irrigation, requiring cooperation amongst a community  Emphasized Harmony, social order and mutual social obligation  Focus on the way whole systems cause processes and events - Greece  Emphasized personal freedom, politically decentralized  Analytical thinking, processes & events viewed as result of discrete category, than whole system Function, Conflict, Symbolic Interaction and Gender: how Agents of Socialization Work - Functionalists: emphasizes how social order helps maintain social relations, down plays freedom of choice individuals enjoy in socialization process - Conflict & Feminist: stress disharmony caused by class and gender, existent in socialization and causes social change - Symbolic Interactionist: stress individuals attaching meaning to social surroundings, show how one modifies value and roles taught to one - Agents of socialization: families, schools, peer groups Family Functions - Functionalist believe family is important agent of primary socialization, the process of mastering skills required to operate in society in childhood - Family are members face-face contact w/ each other, who care for one another and teach children - Todays society changed from agriculture to industrial, women working, divorce rate high resulting in many dads not visiting children, preventing family to help children, more reliance on child care - Sweden and France emphasize state-funded child care that teach children skills, while Canada does not, family not as important as before Schools: Functions and Conflicts - School important for secondary socialization: socialization outside the family after childhood - 2006: 85% completed high school, 54% postsecondary - Schools manifest function: instruct students in academic and vocational subjects - Schools latent function: Teach students hidden curriculum - Hidden curriculum: Teaches students how to be good citizen, what is expected - School teaches that PERFORMANCE not personal criteria matter - Conflict theorists proposed hidden curriculum and claimed working class & racial minority reject this - Racial minority & working class reject/rebel hidden curriculum b/c people around them are not successful due to school - They eventually enter work force and start at bottom, ironically balancing the social structure of society Symbolic Interactionism and the Self-Fulfilling prophecy - Symbolic Interactionism propose Thomas Theorem: claim situation we define as real become real in their consequence - Self-fulfilling prophecy: Expectation that helps to cause what it predicts - E.g. Hidden curriculum: Racial minority/working class student expect to achieve little if abide by school, they reject rules of school and so achieve little - E.g. Teachers Research: Teacher told in beginning of year which children to expect high IQ and which not ( a lie) teachers expectation influenced children - End of year high expecting children scored high, low expecting children scored low - Students internalized social expectation and preform in response to that Peer Groups th - Peer groups: influenced 20 century, consists of individuals of same age and status, not have to be friends - Status: refers to a recognized social position an individual can occupy Naveen 3 - Peer groups helps separate from family, develop identity - From middle age to adulthood, peer group dominant socializing agent - Adolescent- parent conflict: parents represent childhood values, which conflict with adolescent value of alcohol, tobacco, curfew, styles, etc. - Peer groups, allow young people to reject parental values, experiment and rebel - 12-13 year old Canadians claimed to be in risky group, 7 times likely to skip school, low marks, 3 instances of fighting, stealing - Peer influences smoking habit, 84% 12-13 year old smokers have 3 or more friends who smoke - Adolescent- parent conflict is temporary 2 reasons: 1. Family greater influence on e
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