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Chapter 4

Chapter 4- SOC 100.docx

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Ashley Monks

Naveen 1 Chapter 4- From Social Interaction to Social Organization Feminist Theory, Emotion and the Building blocks of social interaction - Researcher studies laughing between two-person groups - Results: Women laugh twice as much when they are speaker in male-female conversation, when women are listener, they laugh more than men also - Men more likely to interrupt, less likely to ask help b/c they feel incompetent, reduction in authority - Social Interaction: involves communication among people acting and reacting to one another, either face to face or via computer, it is structured around norms, roles and statuses - Status: higher status (men) get more laughs than lower status (women) - Role: Expected behaviours, when you occupy status you perform role - Norm: generally expected way of doing things (E.g. class clown being punished for distraction) Emotion Management - Scholars believe emotion like common cold, just happen and are involuntary reaction - Feminists argue that females have to ‘control’ emotions, emotions are not involuntary - E.g. Grizzly bear attacks: we either run or choose to play dead - Manage emotions through cultural scripts, which show to respond appropriately to situation, failure to respond appropriately leads to guilt, disappointment - Emotion management: (Arlie Russell Hoschschild) the act of obeying “feeling rule” responding appropriately to situations - E.g. mourn death, end of relationship (tears) Emotion Labour - Emotion labour: emotion management that many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid - Teachers, nurses, flight attendants all do emotion labour, dealing with peoples emotions and managing their own - Half of women and 1/5 of men do jobs with emotion labour - Increasing need for emotion labour jobs due to economy shift from production of good to production of services - Business govern expression of feelings at work Conflict Theories of Interaction Competing for Attention - Maintaining interactions (relationship) requires both parties need for attention is met - Not all people constantly try to monopolize conversation - But large part of conversation involves subtle COMPETITION for attention - Charles Deber: studies show conversation in North American’s involve the exchange of attention, not winner take all competition - John: I’m feeling starved; Julie: I’m not hungry; John: well I’m really hungry; Julie: when did you eat? - Conversation shows John winning, but actually just exchange of attention Interaction as competition and exchange - Conflict theory: social interaction is competitive interaction involving people who seek to gain most (socially, emotionally, economically) while paying least - Relationship success dependent on payoff, inequality of pay offs is trouble, erupts conflict Symbolic Interaction - People are not always competitive, they do altruistic and heroic acts - Interacting based on norms, learn norms through “taking role of the other” (mead) actively - Social learning: involves negotiating, modifying norms, roles and statuses that we meet as we interact w/ others, shaping them to suit our preferences Goffman’s dramaturgical analysis - Popular variant of symbolic interactionism Dramaturgical analysis - Dramaturgical analysis: views social interaction as a sort of play in which people present selves so that they appear in the best possible light - Goffman believes people are constantly role playing, between front stage (public role) and back stage (true self) - Even in backstage we role-play & impression manage; E.g. impressing another server Naveen 2 - No single self, just roles we play - Role distancing: Involves giving impression that we are just going through the motions and that we lack serious commitment to a role (done when a role is embarrassing or beneath an individual) E.g. this is an old car loaner, not mine, parents make me sing at church - Front stage people try to show self in best life through “IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT” - E.g. Medical students, use medical jargon dealing w/ patients Sociology at the movies - Avatar: The idea of being able to see things from others perspectives by stepping in their shoes Verbal and nonverbal communication - Today high quality machine translation exists, no universal translator, only in Star Trek The Social Context of Language - Difficult for computer to make sense of social and cultural context in which language used - Computers lack contextual cues - Computers can translate single context because less ambiguity - Humans reduce ambiguity and understand other languages, nonverbal cues assist them Facial Expression, Gesture and Body language - Cosmopolitan magazine: how to reduce evolved men into drooling, panting fools (invade intimate space through removing lint off jacket, comment on cologne) - Shows that social interaction involves mix of verbal and nonverbal messages - Face has 1000 distinct expressions - Facial expression of six emotion similar across culture (Happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise) - Critic: expression are not readout of emotions but have social motives, determined by presence of audience (E.g. smiling to please someone, smiling to conceal anxiety) - Japanese believe saying no is not polite, instead avoid and smile, when North American come to Japan they think, smile and avoidance is yes, when in fact is NO - In all societies people communicate through manipulation of space 1. Intimate zone: 0.5 meter from body (lovers) 2. Personal zone: 0.5 to 1.5 meter away (friends, acquaintances) 3. Social zone: 1.5 to 3.5 meter away (handshake/no physical contact) 4. Public zone: 3.5 meter from body (public speaker to audience) Status Cues - Status cues: visual indicators of other people’s social position, nonverbal communication - Use status cues to understand person and interact easier - Status cues can lead to stereotypes: rigid views of how members of various groups act, regardless of whether individual group members really behave that way, barrier to social interaction - E.g. Young black males & law enforcement Networks, Groups and Organizations The Holocaust - 1941 slaughter of 6 million Jews in Europe, Robert Brym’s father escaped holocaust - How did ordinary Germans, products of what he regarded as most advanced civilization on earth, to systematically murder millions of defenseless, innocent Jews? How social groups shape our actions Three factors 1. Norms of solidarity demand conformity • When relationships form, we develop norms of solidarity, about how to behave & act • Nazi Regime: soldiers told to roam polish country and kill Jews, these soldiers were not anti- Semitic, they did it because of maintaining group morale, solidarity • Polish Christians, some anti-Semitic saved Jews because poorly socialization into group norms (Nazi)
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