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Chapter 10

Chapter 10- Education SOC 100.docx

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Ashley Monks

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Chapter 10- Religion and Education (232-241) Education ­ Education is important agent of socialization and is determinant of opportunities for upward mobility Macrosociological Processes The Functions of Education ­ Educational attainment: is the outcome of individual talent and hard work, refers to number of years of school completed ­ Educational achievement: how much students actually learn ­ Functionalists claim education system is responsible for 1. Sorting students based on talent and effort 2. Training students in writing, reading, counting other tasks essential for society 3. Socialization of young, teaching them democracy, value capitalism 4. Transmit culture from generation to generation, common identity & social cohesion ­ Durkheim: Belief that education ensures moral side of individuals predominates ­ Intentional functions of education: Sorting, Training, Socialization, Transmit Culture ­ Latent Functions: (1) Education creates separate youth culture that conflicts with parent values, (2) allows parents to work, while keeping children in school, (3) restrict job competition by holding students in school, (4) promotes independent thinking that fosters views that may challenge authoritarian regimes, fostering social change The Effect of Economic Inequality from the conflict perspective ­ Conflict theorists criticize functionalists and disagree that the most talented student get rewarding jobs  ­ They argue that education is distributed unequally, high income families 61% more likely to enroll in  university than low income  ­ Class influences when person gets to university  ­ 4 mechanisms create inequality in schools:  1.  Financial constraint:  people feel they can’t afford university  2.  One­parent household:    children from one­parent household lack tutoring, emotional support, role  model, while two parent households can provide this 3.  Lack of cultural capital:   cultural capital is attained through education, refers to widely shared, high  status cultural signals (attitudes, goals, behaviours) which foster financial success because parents  transmit these etiquettes to their children  4.  Streaming:   streaming is classifying students under IQ and standardized tests as (high ability, middle  ability and low ability) IQ measures  (1) how effect individual absorbs what environment offers (2)  how closely the environment reflects what test includes. Low­income families don’t have proper  training in this environment, therefore score low. Streaming creates class difference, determines who  goes to university! Case Study: Functionalist vs. conflict theories of the community college  ­ Community college increased due to 2 reasons  1. Country needed more skilled workers in industry  2. People though higher education would result in upward mobility & e
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