Chapter 4: Social Interaction to Social Organization
FEMINIST THEORY, EMOTION, & THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF
• Social interaction: communication among people acting and reacting to another
• Higher status = get more laughs / lower status = laugh more
• The building blocks of social interaction
1. Role: expected behaviour
2. Social Status: perform a role
3. Norm: generally accepted ways of doing things
What is emotional management?
• Obeying “feeling rules” and responding appropriately to situations
• At first people thought that emotions happened to us like a cold, the feminists were like you
dumb little shits, emotions don’t just happen to us, we manage them.
What is emotion labour?
• Basically when people how to manage their emotions because its o a part of their job
• For example, most service jobs, nurses, flight attendants
• Females most always deal with more emotional labour cause we’re fucking awesome.
CONFLICT THEORIES OF INTERACTION
Explain Competing For attention .
• So, a conversation involves 2 people taking turns talking
• North Americans somehow try to turn the conversation on themselves
What is competitive interaction?
• To conflict theorists it involves people seeking to gain the most while paying the least.
• So if both parties gain equal amount of whatever they get from the interaction that’s ideal.
• We interpret other people’s words and nonverbal signals to understand how they view us.
• This causes us to change the way we act
• We learn norms adopt roles and status.
• We constantly change and alter our norms, roles and status so they suit our preferences.
What is Goffman’s Dramaturgical Analysis?
• Social interaction is like a play where people make themselves appear in the best possible way.
• For example waiter seems charming and helpful, goes to kitchen is nasty and shit talker.
• Role distancing: makes you appear as you don’t care “just going through the motion”
• Most people go through impression management where this would be considered “onstage”
• For example, a med student now uses fancy words and lab coats. What are some verbal and nonverbal communication?
1. The social context of language
• Same words can mean different things, computers cant interpret the cues.
2. Facial expressions, Gestures, and Body Language
• This is basic shit, the way we sit, move, anything can change the meaning of our words .
• Certain words or gestures can be insulting to other countries
3. Status cues
• Visual indicators of a person social position
• Which leads to stereotypes which is straightforward since we live in a racist world .
NETWORKS, GROUPS, AND ORGANIZATION
How do social groups shape our actions?
1. Norms of solidarity demand conformity
• Basically the bonds we make with people over ride our moral judgement (loyalty)
2. Structures of authority tend to render people obedient
• Sooo .... you don’t want to piss of Hitler and he shoves your ass into the camps.
3. Bureaucracies are highly effective structures
• Large impersonal organization with clearly defined positions
• A set of people who are link by the exchange of material or emotional resources
• Networks are normally informal or formal
What is the value of social networks?
1. Helps finding a job
• Strong ties with people don’t get you as many job opportunities as your weak ties.
2. Urban networks
• This is straightforward if you live in a city you have SOOOO many networks, the average
• Strong ties are family, SUPER close friends, a coworker. Weak ties is everyone else.
• Social groups: composed for one or more networks who share norms, roles and statuses, interact
• Social categories: a group composed of people who share similar status but don’t identify with
What are primary and secondary groups?
• Primary groups : norms, roles and statuses are agreed on but not put in writing. Has strong
• Secondary groups: larger and more impersonal, weaker emotional ties.
What is group conformity
• If you don’t know this.. I’m judging you.
• Some examples are the asch experiment where they had 7 men, and paper with lines of on it.
Yadda yadda yadda. Read the textbook
• Group think: group pressure to conform despite persons misgivings. What are ingroups and outgroups?
• AGAIN TOTALLY JUDGIN YOU IF YOU NEED THIS.
• Look at high school: Ingroup = popular blond bitches / outgroup = nerds
Explain groups and social imagination
• Reference group: a group of people against whom whom an individual evaluates his or her
• ^^^ basically a role model.
• Formal organization: designed to achieve specific and explicit objectives.
The larger the bureaucracy the harder it is for the people in it to communicate. Chapter 5: Deviance and Crime
THE SOCIAL DEFINITION OF DEVIANCE AND CRIME
• Deviance and crime is different among different cultures
Whats the difference between deviance and crime
• Deviance: breaking a norm and evoking a negative reaction from others
• Crime: deviance that breaks a law
What are sanctions?
• Actions indicating disapproval of deviance
• Informal punishment is mild basically, harsh stare etc.
• Stigmatization: process of negatively evaluating people because of a marker that makes them
different from others. Someone gave you a label ▯so you’re that label
• Formal punishment is actually breaking the law
How to measure crime
• Victimless crime: where the person doesnt come forward and talk about the crime.
• Self report surveys: sooo reporting their involvement in crime either as perpetrators or victims
• Victimization survey: where people are asked if they have been a victim in a crime
What do criminals look like
• Generally males are criminals but over the years females have started to take more of the
• Younger people.
• Race is mostly aboriginals in Canada, the commit street crimes rather than white collar crimes.
EXPLAINING DEVIANCE AND CRIME
Symbolic Deviant and criminal roles must be learned in the course of
Interactionism social interaction if they are to become habitual activities.
Moreover, deviance results not just from the actions of the
deviant but also from the responses of others, who define
some actions as deviant and other actions as normal
Functionalism Deviance and crime have positive functions for society
insofar as they provide opportunities to clarify societal
values, solidarity, and allow useful social change. They also
have dysfunctions. In particular if societies do not provide
enough legitimate opportunities for everyone to succeed,
strain results, one reaction to wh