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Sociology 100 Full Pack Notes.pdf

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Nathan Innocente

Chapter 1 A Sociological CompassKenny September2312 1129 PM The Sociological Perspective Examines patterns of social relations Provides an unique perspective on social events that differ from commonsenseCan be used to see how people understand the world Suicide is thought of an act that is antisocial SociologyThe systematic study of human behaviour in social context Social solidarityRefers to The degree to which group member share beliefs and values and the intensity and frequency of their interaction ValuesIdeas about what is good and bad right and wrong Social structuresRelatively stable patterns of social relations Sociological imaginationThe quality of mind that enables one to see the connection between personal troubles and socials structure ResearchThe process of systematically observing reality to assess the validity of a theory ExperimentA carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to isolate hypothesized causes and measure their effects precisely VariableA concept that can take on more than one value RandomizationIn an experiment assigning individuals to groups by chance processes Dependent variableThe presumed effect in a causeand effect relationships Experimental groupThe group that is exposed to the independent variable in an experiment Control groupThe group that is not exposed to the independent variable in an experiment The Sociological Explanation of Suicide French sociologist Emile Durkheim 18581917showed that suicide rates are strongly influenced by social force Suicide rates varied as a result of difference in the degree of social solidarity and social values The more social solidarity in a group the more firmly anchored its individuals are to the social worldThis means the less likely they are to suicide Highsolidarity groups tend to have lower suicide rates than lowsolidarity groups up to a point Married adults are half as likely as unmarried adults to commit suicideMarriage creates social ties and moral cement that binds them to society Women are less likely to commit suicide because they are more involved in the intimate social relations of family life Jews are less likely to commit suicide because centuries of persecution have turned them into a group that is more defensive and tightly knit Seniors are more likely to commit suicide because they are more likely to live alone Social Solidarity and Values WeakWeak social integrations and weak social control StrongStrong social integrations and strong social control Durkhiems Theory of Suicide Figure 12 on page 6 Egoistic suicide Weak social integrationsExample Being alone Anomic suicide Weak social values governing behaviourExample Stock market crashes Altruistic suicide Strong social integrations and valuesExample Soldiers going into war Fatalistic suicide Excessive social norms and valuesExample Prisoner serving a life sentence committing suicide The Sociological Imagination Aspects of your social structures such as the level of social solidarity of the groups you belong to affect your innermost thoughts and feelings influence your actions and thus help to shape who you areMills argued that one of the sociologists tasks is to identify and explain the connection between peoples personal troubles and the social structures in which people are embedded Levels of Analysis Microstructures Patterns of intimate social relations formed during face to face interactionExamples Families friends work associations Macrostructures Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above your circle of intimates and acquaintances Example Patriarchy social class and religious institutions Global structures International organizations global economic relations and patterns of worldwide travel and communicationsHistorical Background The Scientific Revolution 1550s Statements about society must be based on evidence not just speculation The Democratic Revolution 1750s The social order is a product of human actions People are responsible for creating society and are capable of solving social issues The Industrial Revolution 1775s Created new and serious problems for social thinkers Problems such as lost of religion poverty and wars Sociological imagination was created The Tension Between Science and Values French social thinker Auguste Comte 17981857 coined the term sociology in 1838 Adopt scientific method to the study of society Motivated by strong opposition to rapid change in French society Similar tension found in the work of Durkheim Marx and Weber Sociological Theory and TheoristsFunctionalism Human behaviour is governed by stable patterns of social relationsUsually macrostructures Examineshow social structures contribute tosocial stability Based on norms and valuesSocial solidarity binds people together Social problems are solved by agreementConflict Theory Focuses on large macro level structures Social inequality produce conflict Powerful groups try to maintain their power while weaker groups struggle for inequality Lessening privilege will lower conflict and increase human welfareKarl Marx 18181883 Class Conflict The struggle between classes to resist and overcome the opposition of other classes Large and growing class of workers oppose a small class of wealthy owner Workers will become aware of their class class consciousness They will form a social movement to abolish private property and a communist society Max Weber 18641920Argued against Karl Marx that Capitalism will create a middle class that will stabilize the conflict between the poor and rich Social conflict also include Religion ethic political and classSymbolic Interactionism Focuses on micro level social settings Social life is possible if only people attach meaning to things Help people create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them Symbolic integrationists sometimes validate unpopular and unofficial viewpoints Erving Goffman 19221982 Dramaturgical approach to SociologyPeople are social actors that act a certain way to impress others Feminism Patriarchy Male domination in society Patriarchy is determined by structures of social power and convention Patriarchy in micro macro and globallevels Getting rid of gender inequality will be benefit everyone in society Conducting Research Controlling bias and assessing the validity of theories by conducting researchThe Research Cycle1Formulate questionA question must be stated so that it can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing sociological data
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