Textbook Notes (368,214)
Canada (161,710)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC100H5 (538)
Chapter 4

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Nathan Innocente

Chapter 4 NotesSocial interaction involves communication among people acting and reacting to one another Consider laughter If we define status as a recognized social position it is generally true that people with higher status in this case men get more laughs whereas people with lower status in this case women laugh more Laughter in everyday life it turns out is not as spontaneous as you may think It is often a signal of who has higher or lower status Social structure influences who laughs moreRole conflicttakes place when different role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same timeA role set is a cluster of roles attached to a single status Role strainoccurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person in a single status For instance in the 1960s when most air travellers were businessmen flight attendants or stewardesses as they were called at the time were required by their employers to be slim and single and to appear to be sexually available This requirement caused role strain Stewardesses had to be suggestive while also politely warding off unwanted impolite and even crude overturesSocial statuses are just one of the three building blocks that structure all social interactions The others are roles and norms A role is a set of expected behaviours Whereas peopleoccupy a status they perform a role Students may learn to expect that when things get dull the class clown will brighten their day The class clown will rise to the occasion knowing that his fellow students expect him to do so A norm is a generally accepted way of doing things Classroom norms are imposed by instructors who routinely punish class clowns for distracting their classmates from the task at handJust as statuses roles and norms structure laughter they influence other emotions although their influence is often not apparent In fact most people think that emotions are a lot like the common cold In both cases an external disturbance causes a reaction that people presumably experience involuntarily The external disturbance for example could be a grizzly bear attack that causes us to experience fear or exposure to a virus that causes us to catch cold In either case we cant control our bodys patterned response Emotions like colds just happen to usSociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild is a leading figure in the study of emotion managementIn fact she coined the term She argues that emotion management involves people obeying feeling rules and responding appropriately to the situations in which they find themselvesHochschild distinguishes emotion management which everyone does in everyday life fromemotional labourwhich many people do as part of their job and for which they are paid How then do people learn norms as well as roles and statuses The first step involves what George Herbert Mead called taking the role of the other that is seeing yourself from the point of
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