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SOC100H5 (498)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Nathan Innocente

Chapter 12More than half a century later it is perhaps equally valid to claim that the human body and mind are extensions of the mass mediaThe term mass mediarefers to print radio television and other communication technologies that reach many people Often mass media and mass communication are used interchangeably to refer to the transmission of information from one person or group to another The wordmass implies that the media reach many people Theword media signifies that communication does not take place directly through facetoface interaction Instead technology intervenes or mediates in transmitting messages from senders to receivers Furthermore communication via the mass media is usually oneway or at least onesided There are few senders or producers and many receivers or audience membersEven so in the interaction between audiences and media sources the media sources usually dominate A Canadian civil and railway engineer Sir Sandford Fleming was the driving force behind the worldwide adoption of standard timeThe rise of the mass media can be explained by three main factorsone religious one political and one economic1The Protestant Reformation In the sixteenth century Catholics relied on priests to tell them what was in the Bible In 1517 however Martin Luther protested certain practices of the Church Among other things he wanted people to develop a more personal relationship with the Bible Within 40 years Luthers new form of Christianity known as Protestantism was established in half of Europe Suddenly millions of people were being encouraged to read The Bible became the first mass media product in the West and by far the bestselling bookTechnological improvements in papermaking and printing made the diffusion of the Bible and other books possible2The most significant landmark was Johann Gutenbergs invention of the printing press In the 50 years after Gutenberg produced his monumental Bible in 1455 more books were produced than in the previous 1000 years The printed book enabled the widespread diffusion and exchange of ideas It contributed to the Renaissance a scholarly and artistic revival that began in Italy around 1300 and spread to all of Europe by 1600 and to the rise of modern science A remarkable feature of the book is its durability Many electronic storage media became obsolete just a few years after being introduced For instance eighttrack tapes are icons of the 1970s and 525inch floppy disks are icons of the early 1980s They are barely remembered today In contrast books are still being published today 560 years
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