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SOC100H5 (498)

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Suzanne Casimiro

Chapter 4: Society Society: People who interact in a defined territory & share a culture Gerhard & Jean Lenski: Society & Technology Socio-cultural Evolution: Changes that occur as a society gains new technology Societies with simplest technology have little control over nature, so they can support small # of people; Societies with complex technology (carscell phones) support hundreds of millions of people in more affluent ways of life More technology society has, the faster it changes 5 types of societies, defined by their technology: Hunter-Gatherer Horticultural & Pastoral Agrarian Industrial Post-Industrial Hunter-Gatherer Societies Hunting & Gathering:Use of simple tools to hunt animals & gather vegetation Nomadic moving to find new sources of vegetation or follow migrating animals Rarely form permanent settlements Societies with more powerful technology using their lands for other purposes & reducing their food supply causing huntergatherer societies to disappear Horticultural & Pastoral Societies Horticulture:Use of hand tools to raise crops Hunters & gatherers living where food was plentiful saw little reason to change their ways Pastoralism: Domestication of animals Growing plants & raising animals greatly increased food production, so populations expanded Pastoralists remained nomadic, leading herds to fresh grazing lands, but horticulturalists formed settlements Horticultural & pastoral societies have greater inequality Agrarian Societies Agriculture: Large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources www.notesolution.com
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