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6 Jan 2011
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Chapter 4: Society
๎€Society: People who interact in a defined territory & share a culture
Gerhard & Jean Lenski: Society & Technology
๎€Socio-cultural Evolution: Changes that occur as a society gains new technology
๎€Societies with simplest technology have little control over nature, so they can support
small # of people; Societies with complex technology (cars/cell phones) support hundreds
of millions of people in more affluent ways of life
๎€More technology society has, the faster it changes
๎€5 types of societies, defined by their technology:
โ€ขHunter-Gatherer
โ€ขHorticultural & Pastoral
โ€ขAgrarian
โ€ขIndustrial
โ€ขPost-Industrial
Hunter-Gatherer Societies
๎€Hunting & Gathering: Use of simple tools to hunt animals & gather vegetation
๎€Nomadic โ€“ moving to find new sources of vegetation or follow migrating animals
๎€Rarely form permanent settlements
๎€Societies with more powerful technology using their lands for other purposes & reducing
their food supply causing hunter/gatherer societies to disappear
Horticultural & Pastoral Societies
๎€Horticulture: Use of hand tools to raise crops
๎€Hunters & gatherers living where food was plentiful saw little reason to change their
ways
๎€Pastoralism: Domestication of animals
๎€Growing plants & raising animals greatly increased food production, so populations
expanded
๎€Pastoralists remained nomadic, leading herds to fresh grazing lands, but
horticulturalists formed settlements
๎€Horticultural & pastoral societies have greater inequality
Agrarian Societies
๎€Agriculture: Large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful
energy sources
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๎€Moment in history often called โ€œthe dawn of civilizationโ€ after invention of animal-
drawn plow, along with other breakthroughs
๎€Plows have added advantage of turning & aerating soil, making it more fertile
๎€Greater production = more specialization; dozens of distinct occupations
๎€Money was required as common standard of exchange
๎€Agrarian societies have extreme social inequality โ€“ In most cases, large share of people
are peasants or slaves who do most work; Elites therefore have time for more refined
activities
๎€Agriculture raises men to position of social dominance โ€“ Men take charge of food
production
Industrial Societies
๎€Industrialism: Production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large
machinery
๎€Industrial technology gave people power over environment that change took place faster
than ever
๎€Industrialization drew people away from home to factories
๎€Workers lost close working relationships, strong family ties, & many traditional values,
beliefs, & customs that guide agrarian life
๎€Greatest effect of industrialization has been able to raise living standards
๎€Industrial technology more productive that incomes in general rise over time, & people
throughout society have longer & more comfortable lives
๎€Social inequality decreases slightly because industrial societies provide extended
schooling & greater political rights
Post-Industrial Societies
๎€Many industrial societies have now entered another phase of technological development
๎€Post-Industrialism: Technology that supports an information-based economy
๎€Post-industrial production relies on computers & other electronic devices that create,
process, store, & apply skills
๎€Information Revolution more evident in rich nations, yet new information technology
affects world
Limits of Technology
๎€Technology provides no quick fix for social problems
๎€Industrial & post-industrial societies give us more personal freedom, but lack sense of
community
๎€As technology can be used for good, powerful nations have plenty of nuclear weapons
๎€Advancing technology threatened physical environment
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Document Summary

People who interact in a defined territory & share a culture. societies with simplest technology have little control over nature, so they can support. Changes that occur as a society gains new technology small # of people; societies with complex technology (cars/cell phones) support hundreds of millions of people in more affluent ways of life. more technology society has, the faster it changes. 5 types of societies, defined by their technology: hunter-gatherer, horticultural & pastoral, agrarian. nomadic moving to find new sources of vegetation or follow migrating animals. societies with more powerful technology using their lands for other purposes & reducing. Use of simple tools to hunt animals & gather vegetation their food supply causing hunter/gatherer societies to disappear. hunters & gatherers living where food was plentiful saw little reason to change their. Use of hand tools to raise crops ways. growing plants & raising animals greatly increased food production, so populations.

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