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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Course Code
Suzanne Casimiro

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Chapter Five: Socialization
Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity
Socialization: lifelong social experience by which people develop their human
potential and learn culture
Humans need social experience to learn culture and survive
Social experience is the foundation of personality (persons fairly consistent patterns
of acting, thinking and feeling); we build personality by taking in our surroundings
Human Development: Nature vs. Nurture
Century ago, people thought humans were born with instincts that determined their
behavior and personality
Ex. Case of Anna- deprived of any care , personality did not develop
The Biological Sciences: Role of Nature
Charles Darwin 1859- study of evolution -> led people to think human behavior is
simply our nature
oPeople born as criminals, women naturally emotional, men naturally
Europeans linked difference in behavior to biology rather than culture
Thought that people from lower societies are less biologically evolved and therefore
less human
The Social Sciences: Role of Nurture
John B. Watson- developed behaviourism: behavior is not instinctive, it is learned
oThus, people everywhere are equally human, only different in cultural
oWatson concluded that human behavior is dependent on nurture, not nature
Without denying importance of nature, we can say that nurture matter more in
shaping human behaviour; nurture is our nature

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Social Isolation
Effects of social isolation studied on non-human primates due to ethical reasons
Studies of Non-Human Primates
Hary and Margaret Harlow- rhesus monkeys study in social isolation
Studies of Isolated Children
Understanding Socialization
Six researchers who made contributions to understanding of human development:
1.Sigmund Freuds Elements of Personality
Lived in Vienna when Europeans considered human behaviour to be biological
Turned to study of personality and mental disorders
Developed theory of psychoanalysis
Basic Human Needs

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Claimed biology plays major part in human development but not in terms of
Theorized that humans have two basic needs/drives at birth: Life instinct/eros
(Greek god of love) *sexual and emotional bonding, AND Death Instinct/Thanatos
(Greek meaning death) *aggressive drive; both operate at unconscious levels
Model of Personality
-Latin word for it
-Represents human
beings basic drives
-Unconscious and
demand immediate
-Latin for I
-Persons conscious effort
to balance innate
drives with demands
of society
-Develops as we become
aware of ourselves
and we realize we
cant have everything
we want
-Latin for above or
beyond ego
-Cultural values and
norms internalized by
-Operates as our
conscience; tells us
why we cant have
everything we want
Develops throughout life
Personality Development
Id and ego remain in conflict
In well adjusted person, ego manages two opposing forces
If conflicts arent resolved during childhood, they surface as personality disorders
later on
Culture (form of superego) represses selfish demands and forces people to look
beyond their desires
Sublimation: redirects selfish drives into socially acceptable behaviour
oEx. Marriage makes satisfaction of sexual urges acceptable and competitive sports
an outlet for aggression
2.Jean Piaget- Theory of Cognitive Development
Studied human cognition- how people think and understand
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