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Chapter 20

Chapter 20

Course Code
Suzanne Casimiro

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Chapter Twenty: Education
Education: social institution through which society provides its members with
important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values
Schooling: formal instruction under direction of specially trained teachers
Education: A Global Survey
Canadians spend usually 18 years in school
In low income countries, vast majority of people receive little or no schooling
Schooling and Economic Development
Extent of schooling in any society is tied to its economic development
In low/ middle income countries, families and communities teacher young people
important knowledge and skills
Formal schooling available mainly to wealthy people who dont need to work
Greed root word school means leisure
Limited schooling that takes place in lower income countries reflects national
Most low income countries dont have a lot of schooling
Schooling in India
90% of children in India complete primary school
Barely half of Indian children go to secondary school and very few go to universities
34% of Indians are illiterate
Because many Indians see less reason to invest in schooling of girls, only 49% reach
secondary school
Most children working in Indian factories are girls so their families can benefit from
their earnings before they get married off into another family
Schooling in Japan
Schooling not always been part of Japanese way of life
Today Japans educational system widely praised for producing some of worlds
highest achievers
Early grades concentrate on transmitting Japanese traditions
Starting in early teens, students take series of difficult and highly competitive
More men and women graduate from high school in Japan (93%) than in Canada or
Japanese students and their parents take entrance exams really seriously and about
half of them attend cram schools to prepare for the exams
Japanese students are best at math and science compared to any other high income
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Schooling in Great Britain
British law now requires every child to attend school until age of 16
Teach not only academic subjects but also special patterns of speech, mannerisms,
and social graces of British upper class
Most British students attend state-supported day schools
Britain tried to reduce importance of social background in schooling by expanding
university system and by linking admission to competitive entrance examinations
Summary of all Three
All show crucial importance of economic development
In poor countries, many children (especially girls) work rather than attend
Rich nations have mandatory education laws to prepare industrial workforce
and to satisfy demands for greater equality
Functions of Schooling
Structural-functional analysis looks at ways in which formal education supports
operation and stability of society
Five ways that this happens:
Socialization Technologically simple societies look to families to teach skills and
values and transmit way of life from one generation to the next
Trained teachers used to develop and pass on more specialized
knowledge that adults need in workforce
In primary school, children learn basic language and math skills
Secondary school builds on this foundation and university/college
allows further specialization
Schools also transmit cultural values and norms
Competitiveness is actually discourages in many Canadian
classrooms because of potential damaging effects on self-esteem of
those who fail
Innovation Faculty at colleges and universities create culture as well as pass it
on to students
Research in sciences, social sciences and humanities, fine arts leads
to discovery and changes in our way of life
Integration Schooling molds diverse population into one society sharing norms
and values
Our educational policies sensitive to problems of maintaining
equality of access and unity in face of diversity
Schools try to meet challenge of social integration by establishing
common language to encourage broad communication and force
national identity
Quebecois perceive threat to their distinct culture, resent need to
learn English for economic survival and insist on full provincial
control of education
People in question resist formal schooling in language of the majority
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