The Criminal Courts 26/04/2013 7:48:00 AM
With the exception of Nunavut, there are four levels of courts that deal with criminal
cases: provincial/territorial courts, provincial superior courts (trials), provincial appellate
courts (appeals), and the Super Court of Canada.
The courts are responsible for determining the guilt or innocence of accused
persons and for imposing an appropriate sentence on those who are convicted.
They are also responsible for ensuring that the rights of accused persons are
Canadians believe that the principle of judicial independence is essential to the
proper functioning of the courts.
Superior court judges are appointed by the federal gov’t.
The intent of the court is not to criminalize the offenders, but to link them with
social services and treatment resources.
Research on community courts has found reduced rates of reoffending amoung
clients of the court, high levels of community support for the courts, and
enhanced course processing.
Mental Health Courts
Critics of the mental health court in London, Ontario contend that the lack of
communication amoung the parties and of continuity in personnel assigned to
the court hinder its effectiveness.
People who complete the rehabilitation programs have lower rates of
Domestic Violence Courts
Two main approaches when handling cases: early intervention and counselling
and coordinated prosecution.
When no significant injuries have occurred, and no weapons were sued, and the
accused has pleaded guilty, a counselling/early intervention approach is used.
Judicial Interim Release (bail): release by a judge or JP of a person who has
been charged with a criminal offence pending a court appearance. Prior to
sentencing, the accused must complete the Partner Assault Response program.
If accused is a repeat offender or inflicts serious injury, a coordinated-
prosecution approach is taken.
Drug Treatment Courts Judges become active in treatment planning and in monitoring, rewarding, and,
where required, sanctioning offenders, while defence lawyers and prosecutors
work as a team in attempt to address the addiction ne