Challenges in Criminal Law- Chapter 2
Addressing the High Cost of Crime and Criminal Justice
Despite significant increases in the costs of criminal justice and in the number
of justice system personnel, there is no evidence that this has contributed to
increased effectiveness, or efficiency, of the criminal justice system.
Responding to Organized Crime and Terrorist Threats
Traditional types of crime such as assault, break and enter, robbery, and
homicide. Overall, these crime rates are declining.
While, non-traditional crime rates are increasing such as: international drug
trafficking, illegal immigration, and human trafficking, sexual slavery, money
laundering, identity theft, high-tech and computer crime, cyber terrorism, and
o Many people carrying out non-traditional crimes are from motorcycle
gangs like Hells Angels.
Adapting the Administration of Justice to the Task Environments of Criminal Justice
A task environment in the context of criminal justice system is the cultural,
geographic, and community setting in which the criminal justice system
operates and in which criminal justice personnel make decisions.
In short, the demographics of the area, the local economic conditions, and the
ethnic mix combine to influence decisions. As these factors vary, so too will the
type of crime or social disorder, community expectations regarding
enforcement, the community’s capacity to address local issues, and relations
between the justice system and the citizens it serves.
The highest rates of violent crimes are in Canada’s north.
Addressing Public Perception of Crime and The Criminal Justice System
The public has less confidence in the criminal justice system.
Rehabilitation is viewed as the most important objective of sentencing.
Less positive views of the police are held by those who have been arrested by
police or who have had contact with them as victims of crime (particularly
violent crimes), as traffic violators, or as witnesses to a crime. Individuals
whose contact with police has been restricted to non-enforcement situations,
such as public information sessions, hold more positive attitudes toward the
police, as persons who are more satisfied with their personal safety.
The police enjoy high approval/positive ratings in part because they are the
most visible component of the justice system. In contrast, where the public
does not have contact with judges, lawyers etc., unless they are convicted.
Research shows that fear of crime is greater in areas with low-income families,
visible minorities, and lone-parent families,
Research has found that media does not reflect actual crime patterns, but
media distorts people’s perception of crime because they display mostly
Increasing Community involvement in the Prevention and Response to Crime
The community’s exclusion from a substantive role in justice administration has
contributed to the often-negative perce