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SOC 209 Readings.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Ashley Monks

SOC 209 Readings- Midterm 1 Week 1 Readings # 1: Introduction to criminology (Kramer) What is Crime? ­ Media plays a huge role in crime and in the responses of us who respond to crime ­ Formal definition: crime is a culpable action or omission prohibited by law and punished by the state ­ Normative definition: crime as conduct violates cultural norms; if norm violations are not serious, government gives sanctions; if norm violation is serious, government gives punishment (what is violation of norms is constantly changing) ­ Liberal Philosophical Idea: Says crime and unwanted behaviour is that which causes harm; harm is anything that interferes w/ individual freedom, happiness and ownership of private property ­ Crime is a strategy of organized ideas about and responses to human conduct that is social established as harmful or criminal What is Criminology? th ­ Criminology emerged in end 19 century along with prison ­ Two Type of criminology (1) administrative criminology (governmental criminology or correctionalism) (2) scientific or academic criminology ­ Administrative criminology: seeks to inform management and control of crime & criminals through policy- oriented research; teaches government and offers how to socially control crime, manage how to govern a population (usually done by police, legal pro’s) ­ Scientific or academic criminology: Focus on the causes of crime and expert and social practices in how they shape what is criminal (done by sociology prof’s or legal studies) ­ Today our crime policy is dependent on populist punitiveness; reliance on law and order rhetoric than criminology for these policies ­ Corporate crimes are not reported or legislated by law; specific race and lower class (outsiders) are considered criminals while white are victims Criminological Discourse ­ Foucault: wrote Discipline and Punish: change in surveillance = change in criminology ­ Foucault called knowledge of experts in universities, prisons, hospital, schools and govn’t as discourse ­ Foucault = Power/knowledge (expert knowledge come from powerful institutions) ­ Moral regulation: certain kinds of morality are implicated in social regulation ­ Foucault says society plays an active role in its own self-governance The Value of Critical Criminological analysis ­ Foucault focuses on how cause of crime and crime system is linked to govn’t; how academic is always linked to administrative criminology ­ Garland: academic criminology should have more impact on government processes, how social forces shape criminal law Week 2 Readings #2 The New Punitiveness What is the ‘new punitiveness’? ­ Georgia prison’s have enforced harsh punishment, new for of punitiveness ­ New Punitiveness: Forms of punishment that seem to violate the productive, restrained and rational doctrines of modern disciplinary punishment and heed back, in different ways, to the emotive and destructive themes of sovereign punishment ­ E.g. emergence of penal sanctions: Public Humiliation of the offender, Super max prisons (lockdown regime, prisoners are routinely locked away for up to 23 hours per day, largely denied access to programs, education, exercise & association w/ others. ­ Prison is reborn as container for human goods now Penal Strategies ­ American style three strikes status ­ Tradition of life imprisonment ­ Indefinite civil detention strategies (for sexual offenders) ­ One strike law applied to theft of minor domestic items (pencil, towel) ­ Modern disciplinary punishment violated the SuperMax prison. ­ Prisons work to
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