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Chapter 2

SOC209H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Social Control, Crime Prevention, Adversarial System


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC209H5
Professor
Philip Goodman
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2 – The Structure and Process of Criminal Justice
CRIMINOLOGY VERSUS CRIMINAL JUSITICE: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?
- Share these commonalities: the study of law and legislation, the study of crime trends and
patterns, the formulation and application of criminal law
Criminology: the scientific study of crime and criminal behaviour
Criminal Justice: the study of social control and the agencies that are involved in the
apprehension, prosecution, defence, sentencing, incarceration, and supervision of those
suspected or charged with or convicted of criminal offences.
Key differences:
Criminology’s Focuses Criminal Justice’s Focuses
- Crime and criminal behaviour (law
breaking)
- Causes of crime
- Explanations of crime
- Specific types of criminal activity
- Crime patterns and crime trends
- Nature and extent of victimization
- How certain groups become
criminalized
- The formulation and application of the
criminal law; law as an instrument of
social control
- Public perceptions of the law, crime,
and offenders
- Comparative studies of crime among
jurisdictions and nations
- Specific groups of offenders
- The legislation of morality
- Methods of conducting research on
crime and criminal offenders
- Law making
- Social control and punishment
- The mandate and activities of the
police, courts, corrections
- Decision makers in the justice system
- Non-governmental organizations
involved in responding to and
assisting offenders
- At-risk and vulnerable populations in
the criminal justice system
- The role and activities of the
community in responding to crime,
disorder, and offenders
- The formulation and application of the
criminal law; law as an instrument of
social control
- Ethics and accountability
- Misbehaviour and corruption of
criminal justice personnel
- Racism and sexism in the criminal
justice system
- Comparative studies of criminal
justice systems

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- Methods for conducting research on
criminal justice system
- Structures of governance of criminal
justice agencies
- The effectiveness of criminal justice
strategies, interventions, and decision
making
THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
Criminal justice system: all the agencies, organizations, and personnel that are involved in the
prevention of, and response to, crime and to persons charged with criminal offences and persons
convicted of crimes.
Factors that work against it being a system:
1. Different mandates of criminal justice agencies
2. Lack of interoperability; inability of multiple agencies to communicate with one another
Includes:
- Crime prevention
- Crime reduction
- Hearings
- Sentencing and enforcement
- Parole and other forms of conditional release
- Supervision and assistance
MODELS OF CRIMINA JUSTICE ADMINISTRATION: DUE PROCESS VS. CRIME
CONTROL
- Two compelling value systems
Crime Control (model of criminal justice): an orientation to criminal justice in which the
protection of the community and the apprehension of the offenders are paramount
- Strong presumption of guilt
Due Process Model (of criminal justice): an orientation to criminal justice in which the legal
rights of individual citizens, including crime suspects, are paramount.
- It reflect liberal values
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