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Chapter 3

SOC209H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Avast Software, Domestic Violence, Visible Minority


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC209H5
Professor
Philip Goodman
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3 – Crime, victims, and the community
CRIME RATES
Crime rate: the number of incidents known to the police expressed in terms of the number of
people in the population
Dark figure of crime: the difference between how much crime occurs and how much crime is
reported to or discovered by the police
Research has revealed:
- The rate of reporting to police has declined in recent years
- The likelihood of victims calling the police is not related to the seriousness of the offence
- Reporting practices vary across different regions in the country
- There are age and gender differences in reporting by crime victims
- Crime is underreported in many aboriginal communities
- Crime victims know that, for many types of crimes, there is little the police can do
CRIME TRENDS
Official statistics on crime indicate the following:
- The police-reported crime rate has declined and is at its lowest level since 1972
- The crime severity index, which includes the volume and seriousness of police-reported
crime, has declined over the past decade
- The rates of crime are highest in the territories and in the West
- Violent crime continues to decline, although rates remain high in territories and in
selected western cities
- Property crimes have generally declined over the past decade
- Police-reported youth crime has declined in recent years
THE COSTS OF CRIME
- Estimated annual cost is $31 billion
THE VICTIMS OF CRIME
Studies indicate the following:
- Just over one-quarter of Canadians report being the victim of a crime. The majority of
these incidents are non-violent and involve the theft of property
- The rates of victimization are higher in the west
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