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SOC211H5 (29)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Anthro Textbook.docx

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Reza Barmaki

Introduction to Anthropology -Chapter 1- Introduction • We are better prepared to face the future because, unlike our ancestors, we have knowledge of how and why old societies failed/succeeded. Evolution A change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next. Appearance of new species. Anthropology The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archeology, linguistics, and physical anthropology. Genetics, anatomy, skeletal structure, adaptation to disease, and other environmental factors. Scientific Method An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis (or hypothetical explanation) is stated, and that hypothesis is tested through the collection and analysis of data. The Biocultural Approach Biocultural Evolution The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution; a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution humans are combined effort of biology and culture Culture All aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion and social roles. Culture is a set of learned behaviour; it is transmitted from one generation to the next through learning and not by biological or genetic means • Strategy by which we adapt to natural and social environments in which they live Species A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species (i.e., they can’t mate with them to produce fertile offspring). Society a group of people who share a common culture Enculturation the process why which individuals, generally as children, learn the values and beliefs of family, peer groups, and society in which they are raised Adaptation Functional response of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptation results from evolutionary change (specifically, as a result of natural selection) What is Anthropology? • Study of humankind • Integrates the findings of many disciplines, including sociology, economics, history, psychology, and biology • Cultural Anthropology study th aspects of human behaviour o Enlightenment an 18 century philosophical movement in Western Europe that assumed a knowable order to the natural world and the interpretive value of reason as the primary means of identifying and explaining this order. o Ethnographies Detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, it’s the traditional study of non-Western societies  Early ethnographies were narratives emphasizing religion, ritual, myth, symbols and etc.  Urban anthropology Subfield of cultural anthropology dealing with issues of inner cities  Medical anthropology relationship between various cultural attributes and health and disease  Applied anthropology practical applications and are pursued by anthropologists working both within and outside the university setting • Physical Anthropology study of human biology within the framework of evolution and with an emphasis on the interaction between biology and culture o Paleoanthropology The interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins, their chronology, physical structure, archeological remains, habitats and etc. o Hominin A member of the tribe Hominini, the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives o Anthropometry measurement of human body parts. When osteologists measure skeletal elements, the term osteometry is often used. o today concerned with human variation because of its adaptive significance and because they want to identify the evolutionary factors that have produces variability o Genetics the study of gene structure and action and of the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the underlying foundation for evolutionary change  Molecular anthropologists use cutting edge technologies to investigate evolutionary relationships between human populations and well as between humans and nonhuman primates  Primates members of the mammalian order including prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans • Similarities and differences in DNA sequences between individuals, populations and species. o
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