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SOC227H5 (35)

Soc227 notes- jan 10th.doc

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John Kervin

LECTURE ONE - January 10th History of Industrialization & Canadian Industrialization (chapter 1, pg 1-10) CAPITALISM, INDUSTRIALIZATION, AND POSTINDUSTRIAL SOCIETY • Most people today work for wages or salaries • In two out of three two-adult households, both partners are employed outside the home • three in four workers are in the service sector • one in four people are working in either temporary or part-time jobs • one in six are self employed • for every 12 employed Canadians, one is unemployed • Industrialization refers to the technical aspects of the accumulation and processing of a society’s resources • Capitalism is a term used to describe ket aspects of the economic and social organiza- tion of the productive enterprise • An industrial society is one where inanimate sources of energy such as coal or elec- tricity fuel a production system that uses technology to process raw materials • Labeling a society ‘industrial’ tells us little abut the relationships among the individuals involved in the productive process • A capitalist system of production is one in which a relatively small number of individu- als own and control the means for creating goods and services, while the majority have no direct ownership stake in the economy and are paid a wage to work for those who do THE ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL CAPITALISM The emergence of capitalism in Europe consisted of two basic periods: mercantile or • commercial capitalism, which began in the 1500s, and industrial capitalism, which evolved somewhat later. • In the mercantile period, merchants and royalty in spain, holland, england, and france accumulated huge fortunes by trading internationally in a variety of goods, including spices, precious stones and metals, sugar cotton, and slaves An elaborate trading network evolved, linking africa, asia, and the american colonies • with Europe • The global trade and the pillage of cultures provided wealth that would subsequently fuel the growth of industrial capitalism in Europe • These early signs of capitalist commercial activity emerged out of a feudal society; the Industrial revolution had not yet begun • The class structure of these agrarian societies consisted of a relatively small aristocra- cy and merchant class, most of whom lived in the cities, a rural landowning class, and a large rural peasantry. • Work typically involved peasants farming small plots of land they did not own • Landowners received rent usually in the form of agricultural produce, little of which was sold for cash • Feudal Europe was predominantly a pre-market economy in which the producer was also the consumer • It was also a pre-capitalist economy because wage labour was rare and a business class had not yet become dominant • Feudalism was built upon a system of mutual rights and obligations, reinforced tradi- tion. • Did the decay of feudalism lead to the ride of capitalism, or was it the other way around? • Some scholars argue that factors internal to feudal society, such as growing rural pop- ulations, deterioration of land, and the landlords demanding more rent, forced people off the land and into the cities where they could form an urban working class • Others counter that as mercantile capitalism developed in urban areas, and as the marker economy slowly began to make an impact on rural life, cities began to attract landless serfs • What is undisputed is that capitalism brought with it an entirely new social order EARLY CAPITALISM • Industrial capitalism began to emerge in the early 1700s The production of goods by artisans, or by the home-based ‘putting out system’ in • which merchants distributed work to peasant households, led to larger workshops that made metal, cloth, glass, and other finished goods • By the late 1700s, various inventions were revolutionizing production techniques James Hargreaves’s spinning jenny transformed work in textile industries • • Growth in trade and transportation, the construction of railways, and military demand for improved weapons encouraged new techniques for processing iron and other met- als. • These early inventions facilitated a new form of work organizations: the industrial mill • That was a technical breakthrough that involved harnessing many machines to a sin- gle inanimate energy source, the mill also had immense social implications, consolidat- ing many workers under one roof and the control of managers. • The emergence of industria
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