SOC227H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-6: New Economy, Wage Labour, Maquiladora

255 views23 pages
Published on 7 May 2018
School
Department
Course
Professor
09/06/2017
Reading
Chapter 1 Historical Perspectives on Work (1700-1950s)
100 years ago working in Canada:
- stable value of money despite huge changes in other economic and social factors
- employers didn’t offer paid holidays or make provision for sickness, injury, or old age
(dismissed or reduced wages)
- until 1867, masters and servants acts allowed employers to request to send disobedient
or absentee workers to jail
- good times = could afford 2 or 3 room cottage; diet heavily dependent bread, potatoes,
and cheese; and alcohol
- NOT good times = work was heavy and dangerous (severe and crippling injuries were
common in almost every trade)
- wages (and comparisons) in 1867:
o unskilled day-laborer earned $1/day for 10 hour/day, 6 days/week
o highly skilled craftsman earned 3 times as much ($3/day, etc.)
o child earned 25 cents
Introduction
Changes in Canada today:
- large families are not the norm anymore
- farming factories white-collar, retail, and knowledge-based jobs
- economy still relies on immigrants, but not just British immigrants
- work is becoming increasingly mobile (production spread across the globe, for example
“Made in China”)
- most 2-adult households include partners that both work
- majority of the labor force works in the service sector
- fewer workers are full-time
- STATS:
o 1 in 4 works temp or PT job
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o 1 in 6 are self employed
o For every 12 employed, 1 unemployed
Industrialization = technical aspects of the accumulation and processing of society’s
resources
- industrial society = inanimate sources of energy (like coal or electricity) fuel production
system that uses technology to process raw materials
Capitalism = used to describe key aspects of economic and social organization of
productive enterprise
- capitalist system of production = relatively small number of individuals own and control
means for creating goods and services while majority don’t have direct ownership and
work for wages
The Origins of Industrial Capitalism
Capitalism and industrialization reshaped structure of European society
- changes such as how, where, for whom, and under what conditions individuals worked
Emergence of capitalism in Europe = 2 periods:
1. Mercantile (or commercial capitalism)
- began in 1500s
- merchants and royalty in Spain, Holland, England, and France accumulated a lot
of money by trading internationally in goods such as spices, precious stones and
metals, cotton, slaves, etc.
- trading network evolved to Africa, Asia, and American colonies with Europe
- global trade and pillage of cultures (for example, slaves from Africa and gold
and silver rom Central and South America) = wealth and growth of industrial
capitalism in Europe
- emerged out of feudal society:
o Most people lived in the country
o Class structure = small aristocracy and merchant class (most lived in
cities), rural land-owning class, and large rural peasantry
o Work = peasants farming small plots of land they didn’t own
- landowners received rent in produce, little sold for cash
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Pre-market economy = producer is consumer
o Pre-capitalist economy = wage labor was rare and business class was not
dominant
o Feudal lords accepted rent and manual labor for upkeep of estate
- in return, allowed historical tenancy relationships and provided some
protection for tenants
o Feudalism built upon system of mutual rights and obligations, reinforced
by tradition
o Social positions were inherited
o Society was relatively stable, but economic progress was stifled
o Did the decay of feudalism lead to capitalism or vice versa?
- some argue that internal factors like growing rural populations and
landlords increasing rent forced people off the land and into cities
- some say that mercantile capitalism developed in urban areas and market
economy impacted rural life = cities attracted landless serfs
- INFLUENCED EACH OTHER
- capitalism brought entirely new social order
2. Industrial capitalism
- began in early 1700s
- production of goods by artisans or home-based putting out system (merchants
distributed work to peasant households) larger workshops pumping out metal,
cloth, glass, and other finished goods
- late 1700s = inventions revolutionized production techniques (for example, spinning
jenny for textile industries by James Hargreaves or steam engine for harnessing water
and steam by James Watt)
- industrial mills became new form of work organization (many machines used single
energy source and many workers that needed to be supervised by managers)
- impoverished wage-laborers endured horrific working conditions in industrial mills
- RESISTANCE = artisans or “Luddites” destroyed textile machinery between 1811-
1816
- previously controlled own labor and frustrated changes made skills obsolete
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 23 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Chapter 1 historical perspectives on work (1700-1950s: 100 years ago working in canada: Stable value of money despite huge changes in other economic and social factors. Employers didn"t offer paid holidays or make provision for sickness, injury, or old age (dismissed or reduced wages) Until 1867, masters and servants acts allowed employers to request to send disobedient or absentee workers to jail. Good times = could afford 2 or 3 room cottage; diet heavily dependent bread, potatoes, and cheese; and alcohol. Not good times = work was heavy and dangerous (severe and crippling injuries were common in almost every trade) Wages (and comparisons) in 1867: unskilled day-laborer earned /day for 10 hour/day, 6 days/week, highly skilled craftsman earned 3 times as much (/day, etc. , child earned 25 cents. Large families are not the norm anymore. Farming factories white-collar, retail, and knowledge-based jobs. Economy still relies on immigrants, but not just british immigrants.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.