-Hygiene factors like pay, supervisory style, and physical surroundings in the workplace could
reduce job dissatisfaction, Herzberg argued. But only motivators, such as opportunities to
develop one’s skills and to make decisions about one’s own work, could increase job
satisfaction (Herzberg 1966, 1968).
-Herzberg also insisted that the presence of such motivators would lead, by way of increased
job satisfaction, to greater productivity on the part of workers.
-Influenced by Herzberg’s two-factor theory, most job satisfaction researchers now use
multidimensional explanatory frameworks incorporating both intrinsic and extrinsic work
rewards, as well as organizational and task characteristics.
- more one values some particular feature of work (the chance to make decisions, for example),
the less likely it is that one’s desires can be satisfied.
-However, job rewards had substantially greater effects on satisfaction than did work
preferences. In addition, Kalleberg’s analysis led him to conclude that intrinsic job rewards were
more important determinants of job satisfaction than were extrinsic rewards.
Consequences of Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
- job dissatisfaction will not necessarily translate into quitting behavior
-But feelings of job dissatisfaction may allow workers to rationalize coming in late, calling in sick,
or generally not working as hard as they could
- Dissatisfaction with work is also correlated with the number of complaints and grievances filed
in unionized work settings.
- If dissatisfaction can lead to tardiness, absenteeism, deviance, and, in some situations,
quitting, surely improvements in the quality of working life will lead to a more satisfied and,
hence, more productive workforce, won’t they?
1. Productivity is more often a function of technology and workers’ skills than of their
attitudes. Thus, even if high levels of satisfaction are evident, low skill levels, inadequate on-the-
job training, or obsolete technology will limit opportunities for productivity increases.
2. work-group norms and expectations must be taken into consideration.
3. productivity can be influenced by job satisfaction, but only under certain conditions.
- Workers in higher-status jobs might, on the other hand, report satisfaction because of tangible
work rewards. If so, perhaps productivity increases due to job satisfaction might only be
expected in the latter group
Karl Marx and Alienating Work within Capitalism
-alienate means separation