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Chapter 5

SOC239H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Small For Gestational Age, Racialization, Microaggression Theory

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Sarath Chandrasekere

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Chapter 5
Diversities and Health: Age, Gender, “exualities, Raes, and Aoriginal People
Introduction: social structural positions and health
Socioeconomic status is a fundamental cause of health disparities both because of the
higher rates of illness associated with those lower in the status hierarchy or living in
more unequal societies and also because of the uneven access to care and treatment
Occupational insecurity may also affect those who identify as gay men and lesbian
women differently than heterosexually identified people
Age, gender, and life expectancy
Age is associated with morbidity rates and life expectancy in both predictable and
surprising ways
This overall aging of the population and the corresponding decrease in the younger
proportion of the population show especially the increase in the percentage of people
over 80 years old
o Population aging is expected to continue to increase significantly until at least
2036, As is the decline in the proportion of the population under 20
the population pyramid is the most basic graphic method used to describe the age
distribution of the population
The rapid growth of the older population is especially evident among women
A number of explanations have been offered for this complex phenomenon
o The most important factor in population aging is the overall decline in the
as people have fewer babies, there are correspondingly fewer young
o A second less important factor is the life expectancy increases in Canada
Life expectancy increases because first and most important is the rapid
decline in the infant mortality rate. Significantly, while men, in all of the
hues recorded, live shorter lives than women, the difference between the
average life expectancy is of man and woman have been greater in the
past 25 years than at any point in history
None of the causes of the dramatic decline in mortality are explicitly sex specific, with
the exception of birth control and pregnancy management
Why do men today live shorter lives than women?
o First, the genetic superiority of woman is an aspect of the explanation
more males are conceived and yet more male fetuses die
o Second, to explain this anomaly that men are more likely to die, even though
women are more likely to get sick we must look at the causes of mortality by
Some of the difference in life expectancy between man and woman is
related to stereotyped ahiso asuliity’s, hih ted to put e
more at risk than woman
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This differential reflected in the important distinction between male and
female causes of mortality during early to mid-adulthood: Males are
almost 3 times more likely to die as the result of motor vehicle and other
incidents and suicide
o The most important contributions to hide male mortality can be argued to be
related to the following causes (all of which relate to the performance of
the higher rate of cigarette smoking among men has had a significant and
long-term impact on the six differential for lung cancer, cardiovascular
disease, and respiratory diseases, although this sex differential is
narrowing as women have taken up smoking antismoking rates of men
have declined
o Thus, while there may be gender-based genetic differences, male lifestyles,
including cigarette smoking, industrial employment, excess alcohol consumption,
clearly contribute to male mortality
Age (Infancy and Youth)
o Infants, children, and youth are particularly susceptible to sickness and death,
especially when they are poor, of colored complexion resultant status, belong to
families headed by loan mothers, and experience other negative social
determinants of health
o Rate of infant and child mortality, accidents, and sickness are correlated with
social class
Lower mothers are more likely to give birth to undersized babies.
However, newborns are another age group whose health is of great
significance to the overall health of the population
The weight of newborn babies is a key predictor of the survival chances
therefore low birth weight less than 2500 g or about 5.5 pounds, Is
associated with physical and mental disabilities and infant death
o Significantly, the social status of women has consequences for the health of the
This is especially true with respect to woman in developing nations
Iestet i oe’s eduatio has ee sho to sigifiatly redue
mortality rates among children
Woman status can be defined through for complex, composite indices,
iludig oe’s politial partiipatio, eooi autoomy,
employment and earnings, and reproductive rights
The elderly
o Health problems affecting the elderly are of growing concern as the population
o The elderly go to the doctor more frequently then young people and they are
more likely to be hospitalized and be prescribed medications
o Many hospital admissions results from inadequate or inappropriate drug
prescriptions for utilization
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