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SOC244H5 (40)
Chapter 31

Chapter 31

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Jennifer Carlson

C HAPTER 31: C ONFRONTING V IOLENCE IN W OMEN S LIVES R OSEMARY G ARTNER , M YRNA DAWSON AND M ARIA C RAWFORD Introduction Violence is not so rare according to some core feature of intimate relations between women and men may be at the heart of the problem Chapter reviews main findings of a large study of women who were killed in Ontario from 1974-1994 Conclude that gender is indeed central to mens violence against women Woman Killing: Intimate Femicide in Ontario, 1974-1994 Femicide was first used in England in 1801 to signify "the killing of a woman."; misogynistic murders by men and as a phenomenon tied to the patriarchal system in which women are predisposed to be killed because they are women 202 female victims of homicide in Canada in 1988 Shared with 68 other female victims a marital relationship with their killers 2 women also shared the experience of having been clients and friends of women who worked in shelters for abused women in Ontario Women We Honour Action Committee (WWHAC)- task of learning more about the phenomenon of women killed by their intimate partners; conducted literature review on women killed by their intimate partners or intimate femicide WWHAC approached the Ontario Womens Directorate for funding to conduct their study of intimate femicide in Ontario www.notesolution.com Their study had three goals: document for Ontario the incidence of killings of women by intimate partners, describe the characteristics of the people involved in and the circumstances surrounding these killings, to present the stories of a small number of women who had been killed by their intimate partner Study which was completed in 1992 complied and analyzed data on all intimate femicide known to authorities ; second study designed to update data was completed in 1997 Framing the Issue of Intimate Femicide Concluded that intimate femicide is a phenomenon distinct in important ways both from the killing of men by their intimate partners and from non-lethal violence against women In response to this neglect of gender, a number of analysis have made gender central feature of their accounts of spousal violence Sex-role theorists highlight gender differences in socialization which teach males to view toughness, power and control as masculine attributes Evolutionary theorists argue that violence is an adaptive strategy for males facing loss of status and control over their partners Resource theorists look at violence as the ultimate resource available to men when other means of exerting control over their partners are exhausted General systems theorists argue that for men the rewards of violence against their wives are greater than the costs due to societys failure to adequately allow such violence Power, control and domination were themes that they encountered daily in talking with abused women and that they detected in relationships ending in intimate femicide In unable to control or coerce his partner through other means, a man may exert the ultimate control over her by killing her Hence, male proprietariness, or male sexual jealousy, has been placed at the centre of many empirical and theoretical analyses of intimate femicide Research on intimate femicide and spousal homicide identified common core in these killings of masculine control, where women become viewed as the possessions of men, and the violence reflects steps taken by males to assert their domination over their wives Significant advances in both empirical and conceptual analyses of lethal violence against women by their partners since the literature review that served as the impetus of this research www.notesolution.com Empirical research in Canada still largely relies on official stats from police sources, excluding from their classification of spousal homicides killings by men of their estranged common-law partners and girlfriends; official stats also restrict analyses to the information and coding schemes employed by po.ice agencies and personnel Data Sources Data for this study was collected by searching death records kept by the Office of Chief Coroner for Ontario These records provide centralized source of information on all deaths in Ontario and means of identifying and assessing records for deaths identified by Coroners office as homicides These files contain copies of police reports and medical responds on the condition of body, the way in which women were killed and the violence suffered Imperfect measures of the actual number of deaths due to homicide Were able to cross-check and supplement data from coroners records by looking at police homicide investigation files for some cases Also able to review data from crown attorney files on many cases in which charges were laid In both studies (1992 and 1997) supplemented data from official sources with information from newspapers and magazine articles on some killings and trials of some of the alleged offenders Compiled information so it could be used in quantitative and qualitative analyses Quantitative: study that determines how well a system performs; process used in certain economic, cost-benefit, engineering, or traffic studies where multiple factors, elements, and/or outcomes are evaluated and compared by the use of measurable data. ... Qualitative: Relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity www.notesolution.com
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