SOC244H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Parental Alienation, In Loco Parentis, Life Insurance

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11 Aug 2016
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Chapter 12
First divorce is a marking even in a person’s life. It represents a transition in an individual and a
family life course
Divorce rate increased spectacularly after the 1968 Divorce act and reach it peak in 1987
Cohabitation is now more common than marriage in Quebec as a first union and after divorce
The dissolution percentage may continue to rise if younger cohorts continue to enter in greater
numbers into cohabitation as a first union
Statistics are not yet available for same sex divorce
In Sweden and Norway, gay registered partnerships have higher divorce rates than
heterosexual ones. Women same sex partnerships may be more at risk or divorce because of a
“stronger sensitivity to the quality of relationships”
Age at Divorce and Duration of Dissolved Marriages
The more frequently people divorce and remarry, the shorter each subsequent remarriage
Multiple (Serial) Divorces
-60% of divorcing women and men in 2005 had been divorced at least once before. These rates
are lower in Newfoundland and Quebec. Highest rates are in B.C., Alberta and Yukon
-Clark and Crompton have found that people who experience multiple divorces are much less
likely to believe that marriage is important to them and to their happiness. They are not willing
or ready to make adjustments or concessions that could lead to stability
Number of Children Involved
-Only about half of couples who divorce have children, due to the fact that a good proportion of
divorces occur within the first few years of marriage. Only about a third of couples who dissolve
a cohabitation have children
-the presence of children at home is related to a lower divorce rate
-but in remarriages, the presence of a woman’s children from a previous union increases the
risk of divorce
Who is responsible for children after divorce?
-either towards fathers or mothers, or joint legal custody
Join legal custody: children will live on alternate weeks or months with each parent, it involves
equal rights of access and decision for both parents while the children remain with one parent
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-custodial fathers compared to custodial mothers are more likely to be remarried or have
another adult living with them. Overall, custodial fathers have fewer resident children and
fewer young ones than custodial mothers
-it is difficult to conclude how living with father compared to a mother relates to children’s
development. Even though there are indications that heterosexual single fathers may be
somewhat less hands-on, less supervisory, more permissive and perhaps less warm than
mothers
-these hands off styles and comparative lack of family routines, often increase with the
presence of a father’s cohabitational partner. As a result, these adolescents may have higher
rates of delinquency
-parents in common-law unions that dissolve with children are far less likely to provide child
support than formerly married ones
Factors contributing to divorce
Sociocultural factors
-social and cultural variables that affect several aspects of people’s lives and influence the ways
in which families perceive and experience their relationships
-marriage has become an individual choice rather than a covenant before God and this change
has contributed to the acceptance of its temporal nature
-these cultural and legal factors have made it easier for people to be less attached to marriage
as an institution and consequently to turn to divorce as a solution
-when individualism is coupled with an ideology of gratification, particularly sexual and
psychological, where people are encouraged to be “happy” and “fulfilled”, it follows that
spouses’s mentality about their marriage is affected
-marriage is less likely to be based on the pursuit of happiness and companionship, more is
demanded of marriage in terms of personal gratification
-Amato states that when the martial relationship no longer meets these needs, then spouses
feel justified in jettisoning the relationship to seek out new partners who better meet these
needs
-Durkheim explain it individualistic marriages and unions in general are less stable because they
are more anomic or normless, less bound by imperatives of social cohesion
-Canadians and most Westerners have developed a lower threshold of tolerance when their
marriage does not meet with their expectations for personal fulfilment
Demographic factors
-low-income couples are at a higher risk of divorcing
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-divorce contributes to poverty, it means that divorce and poverty are two variables that
reinforce each other in the causality chain, this said, high income women are more likely to
leave an abusive marriage than are other woman
-youthful marriage or cohabitation also increases the risk of divorcing since couples who marry
during teens usually have low incomes and educational levels, they will also lack the maturity
and experience to cope with the demands of a martial relationship
-their personalities have not yet stabilized so that their needs may change and upset the
balance of their new marriage
Solo motherhood: mothers who have children without a partner
-Remarriages are a risk factor for divorce because of the complexities of reconstituted families
-in stepfamilies, relationships are more difficult to negotiate and negative family processes are
exacerbated
-parental divorce correlates with lower marital commitment among some children once adults
and it will reflect in higher divorce rates later, parents usually are less committed to marriage as
an institution and may transmit this value to their offspring
-cohabitation prior to marriage has constituted until now a strong risk factor to a first divorce
and for a remarriage
-cohabitation is easier to get into and get out of than marriage
-children suffer from their parents’ multiple conjugal transitions as they are then less likely to
have a home and parental environment that is child oriented
Reasons People Give for Divorcing
-infidelity was the reason most often give when having a divorce
-physical abuse, mental cruelty, religious differences, alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling,
mental illness, criminality, stress of caring for a child are some of the reason people will give
when getting a divorce
-one spouse usually want a divorce more than the other
-men are usually surprise when their marriage breaks down, women generally find more
problems with marriage, they want divorce most of the time even they will carry a large burden
afterwards
Adults’ Life After Divorce
-divorce drastically reduces many adult’s mental and physical health, often over the life course
-study found that the negative effect of divorce on psychological well being especially affected
parents of young children, particularly women
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