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Chapter Final

soc263 Chapter 8 final copy.docx

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Anna Korteweg

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Chapter 8: CAGE(s), Families, and Domestic Labour, and the Process of Reproduction  Introduction  Women faced barriers after going through the process of becoming a mother.  Example of barriers in continuing education and in securing gainful employment: Women faced difficulties in finding suitable child care for their children; women quit high school after she became pregnant because of the attitudes of teachers and principal.  Women emphasize importance of marriage and family at the expense of economic self-sufficiency.  Women provide for families and children and that the ideologies that shape this care limit their opportunities for education and paid work.  ―Distributive process‖: women rely on spouses or the state for their means of survival.  American sociologists David Popenoe argues family is in a state of decline. Now, families don‘t provide functions such as creation, socialization, caring, economic support and sexual regulation as effectively as it used to. Families have lost their social power and control on their members. People are more independent now.  Significant trends found in American families since 1960s: {reasons why family is in a state of decline}1.) Considerable fertility decline 2.) Marital role erosion: more women working for pay and less responsible towards child care 3.) Increase in divorce rates, single-parent families and step families 4.) Increase in singlehood and non-family living.  Defining Families{IMPORTANT}  Sociological definition of a Family:  No single definition  Blood-based and / or legal relationships (marriage) between people occupying same residence.  Site of social reproduction:Family is a site in which people are reproduced.  Living in the same household  It is a social construction:  Definition of a family depends on the perspective we define it.  Emotional, financial support  Legal relationship (marriage) – Now, primarily about love…historically, family was all about constructed marriage  It is a foundational economic building block of society.  People marry each other of same status, economic activities of family in a larger society.  Family: a middle-class construct that reproduces white privilege and ideology and neglects radicalized, older and working-class families.  A family comprises of anyone who is involved in the processes of reproduction.  Nuclear Family: a family consisting of a husband, and wife who live together with their biological or adopted children.  Marriages become a little fragile when 1.) No longer have extended kin around us to support 2.) Because love is fragile.  Family is a ―key‖ for us to be able to participate in the society.  TV shows capture those cultural moments—show stereotypical roles of family.  Example:stV show ―Modern Family‖:  1 family: phenomenon of remarriage, women sexuality.  2 nd family: nuclear family, parenting skills, dominant culture, and traditional family.  3 family: Gay family, adopting kids, stereotypically over involved with their children.  What‘s missing??...single parent family and multi-cultural families.  Single person household rising.  2006: 0.1% same-sex couples and 0.5% common law couple.  If married after 2008: after 30 yrs…60% chances of being married and 40% chances of divorce.  Now, 205 single-parent families are run by fathers.  How immigrant status would impact family and marriage practices?  Domestic Labour  3 main elements of domestic labour (also are part of reproductive processes):  Maintaining the household: cleaning, cooking, gardening etc.  Caring for adults and children: caring ―about‖ and ―for others‖…caring refers to feelings of affection and responsibility combined with actions that provide responsively for an individual‘s personal needs or well-being.  Consumption and making ends meet:Economic support for caring comes through process of distribution in the form of wages, social assistance, retirement pensions etc.; individuals and families use this money to buy food, shelter, clothes etc.; and low-income families often use creative and strategic methods to make ends meet.  Gender:  Important structural determinant of who does what for whom in families, regardless of age.  Women spend more time doing unpaid work than men.  The amount of household work men and women do seem to vary according to employment and parental status. For instance, Women working full-time spend less time doing unpaid work; married fathers do twice as much as unpaid work than unmarried.  Caring within family transcends household boundaries more than housework does. For instance, grandparents take care of their grandchildren; children sometimes care for their older parents and grandparents.  The obligations that family members have to care for and about one another are structured by class, age, gender, ethnicity and race.  The above obligations are contained within the process of reproduction and are structured by class, gender, age, ethnic and race relations.  Relationship between mothers and young children.  Findings: women are primarily responsible for child care and compared to men, spend more time providing care.  Compared to past, pre-school aged children are being cared for by babysitters and licensed care facilities because labour force participation by women have increased.  Empty nest stage: The life stage in which all children have left their parents‘ home. Because women in the middle years disengage from their active parenting role, they experience ‗empty nest syndrome‘ and have social and psychological problems.  Cluttered nest: Families whose children, after having left home and living elsewhere for a period, return to live with their parents.  Women who participate in labour force take primary responsibility for the care of their children by making arrangements for child care and taking time off when children are ill. It places women at a labour-market disadvantage because very few workplaces offer child care or dependent care for their employees.  Disadvantage for women in relation to men – lower pay, fewer promotional opportunities, and small pensions.  Stay at home dads and single fathers study care for and nurture their children in ways quite similar to what expected from mothers…sometimes greater emphasis on playfulness and practicality.  These father developed community ties and networks that facilitated their parenting and provided avenues for their children‘s extra-curricular activities, again more emphasis on sports and activity.  Ideologies: Fathers are meant to be earners and mothers are meant to be carers.  Adult children facing stress of combining paid work with care of or support for older parents.  This stress was acute for women because they formed a sandwich generation that had to combine work, caring for older parents and childcare.  Small proportion of women is ‗sandwiched‘.  Class:  Social class also influence housework and family care.  Families with lower income are more creative about their family roles.  Income influences the amount of housework, meal preparation and child care that Canadians do.  Working-class women turn to their mothers for help with babysitting and housework.  The ‗labour of love‘ portrays a strong gendered ideology that limits the responsibilities fathers and grandfathers have in care of children and grandchildren.  Middle and upper class women pay other women to take care of their children.  Middle-class white women usually hire working class, racialized, and immigrant women to do this work.  Race and Ethnicity:  Racialized women -- outsourcing to daycare centres; nanny etc.: Immigrant nannies are largely Philippines and black women. They leave their family and children back home and take care of other women‘s children.  Both class and gender structure the division of housework and child care among black Canadian families. Black women take responsibility for making ends meet.  Compared to white women, black women do more housework and child care because black families are more likely than white families to be working class and are three times as many females, lone-parent families among black Canadians as among all other ethnic groups.  Black family – majority are single parent family.  Strong tied to extended kin.  Nuclear family becoming ―norm‖.  Violence in Families  According to World Health Organiz
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