Chapter 12: CAGE(S) and the State
A complex array of governing institutions in a society.
Includes national-security, parliamentary, judiciary and some more institutions.
The state itself cannot act uniformly or consciously, instead, agents can use the
tools of the state to acquire, monopolize, or distribute resources and services
and maintain social orders.
The state and Weber: According to Weber, the state holds monopoly and legitimate
exercise of violence.
The state and Marx: According to Marx, the state is a superstructure that functions to
Faces of the state: legal, political, social and bureaucratic.
Different expressions of state power, institutions etc.
Democratic: some form of participation
Model of democratic states
Legal: apply on everybody that lives in a democratic state.
Liberal democratic state also relates social relations.
Social relations are shaped by the state: distribution of production and
Democratization: an important historical shift
Fight against occupation: example – India and Pakistan followed
IMPORTANT!!! No global wars since 1945 – after 1945 (increasing #
of states) focus on internal stability. Welfare state focus on internal
stability – wellbeing of citizen.
U.S uses war as a way to employee people: find paid works
o A social system whereby the state assumes primary
responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, as in matters of
health care, education, employment, and social security.
o It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable
distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable
to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life.
The rise of welfare state and the decline of welfare state.
Citizens: are members of nations or society. They are entitled to all the benefits of
being a member of particular society. Many members are denied the full rights of
citizenship and therefore, are treated as second-class citizens. Those who are treated as
―non-citizens‖ are denied all the rights and benefits of citizenship.
Relationship between institute and the state Dimensions of citizenship: legal rights, participation and belonging
Development of citizenship over centuries (T.H Marshall): civil rights, political and
Not necessarily a formal issue
It is a multi-dimensional construct.
Has participation dimensions and emotional identity component that the capital
T.H Marshall: IMPORTANT!!!
Said: rights are meaningless until you enable people to practice those rights
Citizenship as a sociological object
Believed in welfare state; focused on creating some well-being in the society.
Civil: right to personal freedom
Political: right to vote, participate as a represent of people, granted voice.
Social: legal and political meaningless without social right. Right to live life of
a civilized being.
If people are poor and cannot participate in social interactions.
Understanding of well-being compared to society that you live in.
State should help in achieving level of equality for individuals.
Has potential of remedying social equality.
Marshall didn‘t believe in communism, planning economy.
Marshall’s definition of social rights: the right to guarantee economic
welfare and security and the right to share to the full in the social heritage and
to live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in
The above definition means that you are not to poor and are safe and won‘t
face severe poverty.
Referring to social exclusion
To understand cultural and social rights
Why do we need a state to intervene?
State needs to have legitimacy (what‘s required for maintain power). It needs to be
legitimate in the eyes of its people.
State is the regulator of economy and power that draws people to follow civil and
Marshal’s definition: Citizenship conceptualization of an individual‘s basic
human rights. Includes the right to sign a legal contract, right to freedom of
person and freedom of speech, and right to seek redress in the courts for any
violation of property or person.
Right to integrity of your possession.
How we relate to legal system?
Clearly outlined rights accepted as universal. Part of accepted understanding of states of power.
Rights associated with being human.
Freedom of speech, religion, expression.
Charter of rights and freedom: relationship between state and
What is in the charter? (SEARCH!!!)
Language rights: very important to have language rights - based on the
mutli-culture. When you don‘t use your language for so long- you lose
connection with your culture.
Citizenship status matters when it comes to legal protection.
Same rights dependent on legal citizenship status.
Always issue of ―DeJoir and Facto rights‖
o In Canada, Chinese had to pay head tax of $500 to enter
Canada. Men allowed to enter Canada but not their wives
without paying the head tax.
o Hindus were not allowed to vote.
o Live-in caregivers (2-3 yrs. supposed to live at a place where
they work—after 3 yrs.—eligible to apply for citizenship).
o Live in caregiver program: An immigration policy that gives
temporary work permit to women coming to fill the Canadian
need for live-in caregivers. Eg. Nannies; Aims to fill a demand
for child care, and restricting the activities and durations of stay
for the women involved in this program.
Marshal’s definition: conceptualization of an individual‘s right to political
involvement in society. This guarantees a political voice for citizens in the
form of voting and/or seeking political office.
Participation in governance.
Easier way to participate is through voting – relatively accessible to people.
1920: women got right to vote in Canada.
Political participation and Inequality: race, class, gender in electoral politics
and claims making.
Citizenship and the State
Civil rights and the Canadian legal system: Canadian charter of rights and freedoms.
Social inequalities: race, gender, class, age.
Gender: historical inequality – women received citizenship depending on their
husbands. ―Rights of integrity‖. Women are independent persons whether they are
pregnant or not. Racialized poor women (gender, race, class leads to violence.)
The welfare state and social inequality
Welfare state programs:
Production: labour law and regulations Redistribution (income supports): social insurance, social assistance.
Social reproduction: health care, education and other care.
Production: labour relations and regulate economic transactions.
Redistribution: redistribute income
Social insurance: EI (employment insurance)… EI: women required to work
420-700 hours in the 12 months prior in order to qualify for EI. Majority of the
Part-time workers were not eligible since they weren‘t able to work 420-700
hours withing12 months. Women also disadvantaged in their access to social
insurance on the basis of their paid productive and reproductive labour. Child
bearing and caring held women away from labour force.
Social assistance: aka needs based programs. Depending on your income
level, you can get money from welfare. Also includes, disability payments,
old-age program based on needs, can also include children (wick in U.S)
Social reproduction: reproduction of ourselves; need health care, education etc. Prof’s
definition of social reproduction: The array of activities and relationships involved
in maintain people both on daily basis and inter-generationally. Everyday activities we
do to function; not solely happens in family but also beyond the family.
Welfare state grant people social rights.
Citizenship and the state
Race, class, gender shape the likelihoods of…
Social rights and social inequality: race, class, gender
Class effects health care:
Poor: worst health outcomes, might need more care
Class determines whether you need social assistance or not.
Lack of affordable child c