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SOC263H5 (63)
Chapter Final

SOC263 Chapter 12 Final Copy.docx

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Anna Korteweg

Chapter 12: CAGE(S) and the State  Introduction  State:  A complex array of governing institutions in a society.  Includes national-security, parliamentary, judiciary and some more institutions.  The state itself cannot act uniformly or consciously, instead, agents can use the tools of the state to acquire, monopolize, or distribute resources and services and maintain social orders.  The state and Weber: According to Weber, the state holds monopoly and legitimate exercise of violence.  The state and Marx: According to Marx, the state is a superstructure that functions to protect capital.  Faces of the state: legal, political, social and bureaucratic.  Different expressions of state power, institutions etc.  Democratic: some form of participation  Model of democratic states  Legal: apply on everybody that lives in a democratic state.  Political  Liberal democratic state also relates social relations.  Social relations are shaped by the state: distribution of production and reproduction.  De-centralized  Democratization: an important historical shift  Fight against occupation: example – India and Pakistan followed occupation.  IMPORTANT!!! No global wars since 1945 – after 1945 (increasing # of states) focus on internal stability. Welfare state focus on internal stability – wellbeing of citizen.  U.S uses war as a way to employee people: find paid works  Welfare state: o A social system whereby the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, as in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. o It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life.  The rise of welfare state and the decline of welfare state.  Citizenship  Citizens: are members of nations or society. They are entitled to all the benefits of being a member of particular society. Many members are denied the full rights of citizenship and therefore, are treated as second-class citizens. Those who are treated as ―non-citizens‖ are denied all the rights and benefits of citizenship.  Relationship between institute and the state  Dimensions of citizenship: legal rights, participation and belonging  Development of citizenship over centuries (T.H Marshall): civil rights, political and social rights.  Not necessarily a formal issue  It is a multi-dimensional construct.  Has participation dimensions and emotional identity component that the capital belongs to.  T.H Marshall: IMPORTANT!!!  Said: rights are meaningless until you enable people to practice those rights  Citizenship as a sociological object  Believed in welfare state; focused on creating some well-being in the society.  Civil: right to personal freedom  Political: right to vote, participate as a represent of people, granted voice.  Social: legal and political meaningless without social right. Right to live life of a civilized being.  If people are poor and cannot participate in social interactions.  Understanding of well-being compared to society that you live in.  State should help in achieving level of equality for individuals.  Has potential of remedying social equality.  Marshall didn‘t believe in communism, planning economy.  Social Rights:  Marshall’s definition of social rights: the right to guarantee economic welfare and security and the right to share to the full in the social heritage and to live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in society.  The above definition means that you are not to poor and are safe and won‘t face severe poverty.  Referring to social exclusion  To understand cultural and social rights  Social closure  Why do we need a state to intervene?  State needs to have legitimacy (what‘s required for maintain power). It needs to be legitimate in the eyes of its people.  State is the regulator of economy and power that draws people to follow civil and political rights.  Civil Rights:  Marshal’s definition: Citizenship conceptualization of an individual‘s basic human rights. Includes the right to sign a legal contract, right to freedom of person and freedom of speech, and right to seek redress in the courts for any violation of property or person.  Right to integrity of your possession.  How we relate to legal system?  Clearly outlined rights accepted as universal.  Part of accepted understanding of states of power.  Rights associated with being human.  Freedom of speech, religion, expression.  In Canada:  Charter of rights and freedom: relationship between state and Canadians.  What is in the charter? (SEARCH!!!)  Language rights: very important to have language rights - based on the mutli-culture. When you don‘t use your language for so long- you lose connection with your culture.  Citizenship status matters when it comes to legal protection.  Same rights dependent on legal citizenship status.  Always issue of ―DeJoir and Facto rights‖  Historical discrimination: o In Canada, Chinese had to pay head tax of $500 to enter Canada. Men allowed to enter Canada but not their wives without paying the head tax. o Hindus were not allowed to vote. o Live-in caregivers (2-3 yrs. supposed to live at a place where they work—after 3 yrs.—eligible to apply for citizenship). o Live in caregiver program: An immigration policy that gives temporary work permit to women coming to fill the Canadian need for live-in caregivers. Eg. Nannies; Aims to fill a demand for child care, and restricting the activities and durations of stay for the women involved in this program.  Political rights:  Marshal’s definition: conceptualization of an individual‘s right to political involvement in society. This guarantees a political voice for citizens in the form of voting and/or seeking political office.  Participation in governance.  Easier way to participate is through voting – relatively accessible to people.  1920: women got right to vote in Canada.  Political participation and Inequality: race, class, gender in electoral politics and claims making.  Citizenship and the State  Civil rights and the Canadian legal system: Canadian charter of rights and freedoms.  Social inequalities: race, gender, class, age.  Gender: historical inequality – women received citizenship depending on their husbands. ―Rights of integrity‖. Women are independent persons whether they are pregnant or not. Racialized poor women (gender, race, class leads to violence.)  The welfare state and social inequality  Welfare state programs:  Production: labour law and regulations  Redistribution (income supports): social insurance, social assistance.  Social reproduction: health care, education and other care.  Production: labour relations and regulate economic transactions.  Redistribution: redistribute income  2 types:  Social insurance: EI (employment insurance)… EI: women required to work 420-700 hours in the 12 months prior in order to qualify for EI. Majority of the Part-time workers were not eligible since they weren‘t able to work 420-700 hours withing12 months. Women also disadvantaged in their access to social insurance on the basis of their paid productive and reproductive labour. Child bearing and caring held women away from labour force.  Social assistance: aka needs based programs. Depending on your income level, you can get money from welfare. Also includes, disability payments, old-age program based on needs, can also include children (wick in U.S)  Social reproduction: reproduction of ourselves; need health care, education etc. Prof’s definition of social reproduction: The array of activities and relationships involved in maintain people both on daily basis and inter-generationally. Everyday activities we do to function; not solely happens in family but also beyond the family.  Welfare state grant people social rights.  Citizenship and the state  Race, class, gender shape the likelihoods of…  Social rights and social inequality: race, class, gender  Class effects health care:  Poor: worst health outcomes, might need more care  Class determines whether you need social assistance or not.  Gender:  Lack of affordable child c
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