Textbook Notes (368,448)
Canada (161,882)
Sociology (1,513)
SOC263H5 (63)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC263H5
Professor
Lina Samuel
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 – Canadian Employment Patterns and Trends Data Sources - Canadian census: survey of the entire population of the country (conducted by Statistics Canada) o Can cover a variety of topics o Done every 5 years (not really up to date) o Shows complete picture of Canada at a certain point of time o Allows us to make historical changes - Labour Force Survey: focuses on only work related topics (conducted by Statistics Canada) o Much more detailed o Done every month (up to date) o Some surveys that are more specific are ‘piggy-backed’ onto Labour Force Surveys The Demographic Context of Labour Market Change - Demographic shifts (or popl’n changes) in Canada set some basic parameters Workforce Aging - Popl’n aging has significant implications for job opportunities, pensions, work values and organizational structures - Baby boomer generation (between 1945-1964), largest generation in Canada, were able to get good jobs b/c during their time, the economy was still expanding - Now they’re getting older and are starting to think about retirement, which leaves many problems o Pensions  will the country be able to afford pensions for all of these people? o Thought that maybe youth are going to have to pay more to cover the costs - After baby boomers, there was a decline in birth rates leading to increase in unemployment and global economic uncertainties leading to layoffs and no one hiring - Idea of a working pyramid where the higher positions in a company have fewer and fewer positions o More older workers = more competition for this top position o Organizations haven’t adapted to changing demographics, maintaining pyramidal structures and recruitment policies that are no longer appropriate and focusing on downsizing for the past decade - Graph of age distribution of labour for participants from 1976-2008 o Less teenagers and young adults working in 2008 o Increase in 35-64 adults working o More 55-66 year olds in workforce as growing number of boomers reach ‘near retirement’ age o Working-age popl’n that funds gov’t old-age security programs through payroll contributions will shrink during this period o Early baby boomers are now thinking about retirement  will pensions support all retired baby boomers? Will youth have to pay more to cover these costs? o Believed that if more baby boomers entering retirement, there will be more job opportunities for youth  FALSE, b/c there is growing emphasis on post- secondary education and remember there is only a small amount of young adults o As more adults enter retirement, more labour shortages Greater Workforce Diversity - Canada has had immigrants for a very long time - Used to be less visible diversity in Canada, where most immigrants in Canada came from Europe - Now it has changed, where there are more immigrants from Asia and the Middle East, leading to more visible minority groups w/ distinct cultural backgrounds - Immigrants now are also much younger, allowing them to makeup the workforce as older Canadians retire - The gov’t anticipates that there are going to be labour shortages since the population is aging, so immigration to Canada is great as the provincial and federal government will ensure that immigrants skills and abilities are recognized and properly utilized - Immigrants frequently create their own jobs, take on jobs other don’t want and are carefully selected to match shortages of workers in specific occupational categories - Used to be far less visible diversity o Why? Canada immigration policies no longer favour European immigrants, and the demand to immigrate to Canada has increased in countries other than Europe - 2006 census  16.2% of Canadians viewed themselves as a visible minority, compared to 1981 where only 4.7% did - These demographic trends have prompted employers and gov’t to create policies that facilitate greater cultural diversity and reduce potential for labour market discrimination A Better Educated Workforce - Canadians becoming more educated - Huge change in educational attainment of the labour force o 1975  most people had only a high school diploma o 2008  most people have a postsecondary diploma and more have university degrees - Believed that well-educated workforce is a nations key resource in today’s global marketplace and will help make Canada more competitive internationally (allows for better literacy and numeracy and other essential skills) - Alternate view of this perspective is lifelong learning and learning organizations  continuous education (formal and informal) in educational institutions and at work and home throughout ones adult life. Variant - Canada has mediocre record of employer-sponsored workplace training - It is well-educated workers already in good jobs who typically receive training, further accentuating labour market inequalities - Believed that in order for there to be economic growth, the workforce needs to be educated and trained, BUT there is more to that o Unemployment higher among less educated BUT there are still many unemployed Canadians who ARE well educated o Many Canadians in jobs requiring little education and training (21% of uni graduates in 2001 in jobs only requiring high school education) o Underemployment: mismatch between education and job requirements o Underemployment high among well-educated new immigrants o Underemployment highlights the need to go beyond the supply side of the education-job equation to examine how job content and skill requirements could be upgraded; how the demand for educated labour could be improved concerted **go ove
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