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Chapter 11

SOC275H5 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Cross-Dressing, Penis Enlargement, Male Gaze

Course Code
Hae Yeon Choo

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Chapter 11 The Gendered Body
Gender and dis/ability
Disability is often ignored or rendered
(presented) invisible, seen only when the
specic topic of disability is addressed
For sexism, racism, classism and homophobia,
we need to add ablism, which can be dened
both as active discrimination against disabled
people and as attitudes that diminish disable
people’s competence and focus on disability as
their dening characteristic
Disabled people are often infantilized or seen as
childlike: being ignored in a public place while
their companion are asked what the disabled
person wants
The risk of disability increases with age
Disabled Canadian are at much greater risk of
poverty than non-disabled
Adult with disability faces signicant barriers to
employment, particularly these adults are
immigrants, aboriginal or from racialized group,
the barriers can be even greater
Women are ‘overrepresented’ among Canadian
adults with disabilities
55% of adults with disabilities are female and
they are facing even higher rate of poverty than
do their male counterparts
Women also face a double whammy with regard
to poverty in employment and being lone
parents with disabilities
Employers’ ideas of the ‘ideal worker’ may be
both sexist and ableist

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Disabled women may face greater body threat
and body scrutiny since they are tremendously
vulnerable to violence and sexual abuse and
more likely than male disability to be
For men, disability may strike at the heart of
both physical and sexual performance, which are
key elements in hegemonic masculine ideologies
For heterosexual men, damaged masculinity
may be more an issue to them than their female
Men with disabilities are signicantly less likely
than disabled women to experience martial
Gender and sport
Sport and physical activity produce not only
enhanced bodily health, but also improved
mood, cognition, and self-esteem
From our earliest days, play is one of the most
heavily gendered aspects of our existence. This
gendering carries one into adulthood, and is
perhaps most powerfully expressed in sports,
particularly at the highest levels
Children learn early on to play in gender-specic
ways: boys are encouraged to participate in
more physical, rough and tumble play than girls.
The boys’ mastery of sports-related skills is
considered important to their development as
gendered beings.
In modern societies, of ghting as a key
component of masculine identity, sport has
emerged as perhaps the key area in which
masculinity is proved and dened.

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Throwing is one of the areas of greatest gender
di3erence: the di3erences between men’s and
women’s throwing speeds are signicantly
greater than any measured cognitive,
communication or even sexual di3erences
Feminine body comportment (behavior, holding
their bodies modestly) is the enemy of sporting
competence, not their anatomy
Self-objectication that girls learn as inhabitants
of female bodies in a gendered society, we
objectify ourselves, we adopt the perspective of
an outsider on our bodies and selves
This undermines the ability to be comfortable in
one’s skin, to move the body unselfconsciously
in space, and most importantly, to focus
completely – another critical skill for sport
Girls who exhibited greater self-objectication
showed poorer throwing performance
The older girls are more self-objectify (and throw
poorly) than are younger girls
The gap between girls and boys widens before
and during their time in the school system
School is the occasion for most children’s rst
exposure to organized sports, thus school
experiences have a profound e3ect on life-long
attitudes towards and experiences of sport
In 19 th
century, sport was conceived of as an
inherently masculine pursuit aimed at training
boys’ bodies and minds to t them for their roles
as men
Until 20 th
century was sport seen as a desirable
pursuit for North American girls,
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