Textbook Notes (363,074)
Canada (158,173)
Sociology (1,471)
SOC310H5 (39)
Chapter Final

Soc310 Chapter Exam Notes.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Mississauga
Abigail Salole

Soc310 Exam Notes Chapter 8-Street-Involved Youth: Conditions, Consequences and Interventions • Brianna Olson was involved with street/drugs and was guided by iHuman Introduction • Street-involved youth: a group of young people working and/or living on or about the street (hard to reach population) “out-of mainstream youth” • Street entrenchment: forced economic survival, the abuse of drugs, violence, and denial of human dignity that comes from being immersed in street-life • More experiences and face more challenges than adults (most) • Shared experiences, but heterogeneous with experiences conditioned by class, race and gender relations • Became targets of public vengeance, marginalized, increased criminalization, regulation and control • Politics of exclusion: social isolation reinforced by relations of power • Neo-conservative: holds accountable and targets vulnerable and marginalized groups “blames poverty on poor” Who are street-involve youth? (Ages 12-24) • Different from homogenous image, street-involved youth heterogeneous • Chronic instability: defined in terms of housing, relationships, income and health- characterized and unites street-involved youth • Living conditions vary from temporarily (housing, squatters, and engage in various survival strategies • Staying with friends, engaging in prostitutions, petty offences) • Longer they are homeless more likely to commit offence Box 8.1 (pp. 185) • No longer eligible for social adolescent services on 25 birthday • 2:1 ratio (more males on streets) • Some females over-represented (Aboriginals, lesbians, refugees,) • Most don’t have high school diploma • Increased poverty (due to economic pressures and lack of sufficient resources) factor to homelessness • Social marginalizationradicalized groups more likely to end up on the street from all origins • Many come from families that rely of social assistance Conditions, Definitions, and Prevalence of Homelessness • Homelessness is “not” secure & safe living (fluid and exclusive) • UN has 2 categories absolute (unfit habitation) and relative homelessness (basic standards aren’t met) • Basic standards: secure, safe, protection from elements, clean water (not met = classified as homeless) • 33 000 homeless (8-11 thousands are youth) • No systematic measure of street-youth (homeless) because ambiguous definition (and access) Youth, Child Poverty and “New” Welfare State • 1990s-fastest group using shelters were youth and families • Occurs in transition between childhood-adulthood • Reflects social inequalities of larger society from its emanates • Acute problem among Aboriginal youths (more likely to be poor) • Huston & Liddord-3 main factors (structural) account for why youth comprise significant % of homeless 1. Reduction in affordable housing that is accessible to youth 2. Youth employment 3. Reduction in state benefits • Contributes to inequality & unequal distribution of resources • Neo-liberal: these “social failure” responsible for themselves Unstable Living Situations • Increased visibility of disfranchised homeless youth reinforces neo-liberal argument of “social failure”, but doesn’t account for interconnection between systemic, societal and individualistic factors • Make connection between choices and condition (structural)-so view “homelessness” as condition that structure their choices • 97-2001 increased rent by 31%, poverty in relation to labour trends, family composition, government policing (impact redistribution of wealth) • Catch 22 of homelessness-need to address to get job, but need job to get address Unstable Youth Employment (16%) • Plethora of part-time work, fewer benefits with low wages insecure and more inequitable • Worked, but remained power due to low wages (seasonal, part-time) • Homeless youth in odd with reliance on parents • Street-youth works are in jobs informally organized (outside regulated employment and safety standards) • “squeegee kids” newspaper created moral panic, as nuisance and thieves • So Safer Street Act, but 5 years of fighting was re-appealed as low working with political exclusion • Would lose incomemore marginalized resort to crime • Male/female inequality in wagefemale-single parent Chapter 10-What to do about Youth Crime? Introduction • Crime and justice is sensationalized • Nile Christie-restorative, Neighbourhood watch • Retributive justice-criminal and justice system Debates in Literature • Punitive YJS came from public demanding it from YOA (get tough approach) • House of Commons (bi-functional approach) • Labelling theory: “self” changes to match with the label, making them more delinquent • Increased incarceration based on retributive model, but does not decreases recidivism (Doob) • Media increased popularity for incarceration • YCJA-difficult for judges to sentence youth custody unless violent offences Detention Centres: Responding to Crime with Incarceration • Justice is retributiveyou break lawyou hurt/harmed • Underlying deterrence-punishment sends message of warning • Intrusive punishmentboot camps (military-style discipline) Boots Camps (shock incarceration) • 1983-sentencing option to reduce over-crowding • 40 camps in 29 states • 1960-70 rehabilitation questioned as “not working” • Law & crime married public safety and promised to be harder on crime • Boot camps were detention so more intrusive than probation • Argument-as long as rehabilitation part of program, youth leave with positive attitude- social life • Belief that anything positive comes from exposing troubled youth to military discipline • 1990s-conservative approach viewed boot camps as cure for all • (Doob, 2003) –wear down youth and rebuild them • Adopted for political, financial, ideology reasons rather for their success/effectiveness • Project Turnaround (1997) as Ontario’s first • Boot camps provided structure so youth can focus attention on positive activities • P. Turnaround-academic, education, recreational program, and specialized treatment in cognitive skills (substance abuse, anger management and more reasoning) • 2004 closed Project as showed no difference (recidivism)-arguing decision was operationally and fiscally responsible • Scared-straight program-scare them in to following conventional social ways • Juvenile presentation in prison about harsh realities of Scare Straight (Peter Falk) • Tougher youth justice system provides secure custodial facilities, is “just deserts” philosophy • Focuses on individual behaviour, determining guilt, and delivering appropriate punishment • Retributive sanction; non-punitive/alternative sanctions appear weak (so ignores cost- benefits of alternative responses) Re-thinking S
More Less

Related notes for SOC310H5

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.