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SOC341H5 (18)

Labour market and Employment trends by Tracey Adams and Sandy Welsh.docx

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Lina Samuel

Labour market and Employment trends by Tracey Adams and Sandy Welsh  Without labour market statistics to guide us, we would not be able to understand how experiences may be changing and where we need to focus our attention  A labour market is where employers and employees come together, where workers get distributed into jobs and industries  The labour market you have access to determine how much you will earn, how many hours you will work, and the quality of your working life  Labour market segmentation theory focuses on how labour markets are “segmented” or separated into sections containing different kinds of jobs  Jobs are divided according to their location in the “core” or “periphery” of the economy  Core industries tend to be capital intensive, large, and unionized, and they can exert control over their environment  The periphery is characterized by lower tier service industries and jobs in highly competitive markets  Primary labour market jobs are modelled on the notion of a “lifetime” job that guarantees workers a high level of job security, annual wage increases, and opportunities of promotion.  Secondary labour market jobs do not offer much security or upward mobility and are therefore sometimes called dead end jobs.  Labour market chances are also affected by membership in unions and professional associations, also known as labour market shelters, which limit entry into jobs and protect wage levels.  One outcome of labour market segmentation is the creation of labour market ghettos, which trap certain groups of workers in some of the worst jobs in the labour market or within occupational categories.  Sex and racial segregation occupations can lead to job ghettos that can trap women and workers of colour.  All market economies go through regular periods of expansion and contraction  Goods-producing industries, as defined by Statistics Canada, include natural resources, manufacturing, construction, and agricultural; service industries include retail and wholesale trade, health care, public administration, education, business services, information, culture, and recreation.  Deindustrialization refers to the decline of the industrial and goods producing sector in Canada and the US beginning in the 1970s and the subsequent rise of the service sector.  In 2005, the manufacturing sector was the second largest employer in Canada. Sociologists are concerned about the decline of manufacturing jobs, which have long represented good jobs in terms of wages, benefits, and security, and thus the best opportunities for young workers, especially young men, with high school education or less.  Marx saw private employment relationships under
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