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SOC341H5 (18)

Industrialization and its consequences by Rudi Volti.docx

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Lina Samuel

Industrialization and its consequences by Rudi Volti  The word manufacture literally means production by hand, and this is an apt description of how things were made for thousands of years. th  This mode of work began to be radically transformed around the middle of the 18 century, first in Britain and then in many other parts of the world. The technological and organizational changes that were the basis of this transformation have been labeled the Industrial Revolution.  The industrial revolution did not represent a complete break with the past; radically new ways of doing things coexisted with traditional modes of production for a long time, and in fact, many preindustrial ways of doing things persist to this day  The technological realm, one of the signifying features of the industrial revolution was the large scale use of external sources of energy  These new resources of power were used to operate a host of mechanical devices that augmented or took the place of human labour.  Mechanization transformed many other industries; everything from pins to locomotives were made in large volumes through the use of innovative machinery.  The majority of workers were treated as commodities with no personal stake in the enterprise that employed them Capitalism and Market Economies  Gatherers and hunters, with their limited stock of personal possessions and their ethos of sharing, live in societies with little in the way of social differentiation other than age and gender.  In contrast, agricultural societies usually contain definite class divisions that centre on the possession of land or the lack of it.  Capitalism is an economic system in which some individuals derive the bulk of their income through their ownership of productive assets such as mines, railroads, banks and factories. o Lacking ownership of these assets, the great majority of the population have had to earn their livelihood by selling their labour to capitalists and receiving a wage or salary in return.  In considering the significance of market economies, it is well to begin by
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