Industrialization and its consequences by Rudi Volti
The word manufacture literally means production by hand, and this is an apt description
of how things were made for thousands of years.
This mode of work began to be radically transformed around the middle of the 18
century, first in Britain and then in many other parts of the world. The technological and
organizational changes that were the basis of this transformation have been labeled the
The industrial revolution did not represent a complete break with the past; radically new
ways of doing things coexisted with traditional modes of production for a long time, and
in fact, many preindustrial ways of doing things persist to this day
The technological realm, one of the signifying features of the industrial revolution was
the large scale use of external sources of energy
These new resources of power were used to operate a host of mechanical devices that
augmented or took the place of human labour.
Mechanization transformed many other industries; everything from pins to locomotives
were made in large volumes through the use of innovative machinery.
The majority of workers were treated as commodities with no personal stake in the
enterprise that employed them
Capitalism and Market Economies
Gatherers and hunters, with their limited stock of personal possessions and their ethos of
sharing, live in societies with little in the way of social differentiation other than age and
In contrast, agricultural societies usually contain definite class divisions that centre on the
possession of land or the lack of it.
Capitalism is an economic system in which some individuals derive the bulk of their
income through their ownership of productive assets such as mines, railroads, banks and
o Lacking ownership of these assets, the great majority of the population have had
to earn their livelihood by selling their labour to capitalists and receiving a wage
or salary in return.
In considering the significance of market economies, it is well to begin by