Scot Wortley (2003). Hidden Intersections: Research on Race, Crime, and Criminal Justice in Canada. 35(3): 99-
1) Explores different theoretical models that try to explain why racial minorities appear to be over-represented in official crime stats.
2) Discusses racial discrimination within justice system.
a) Argues that intersection of race and lower class position may contribute to apparent disadvantages minority groups face when
dealing with police and CJS
3) Criminal Victimization
a) High rates of violent victimization. Why?
b) How researchers and govt should address the problem of hate crime
4) How race interacts with both social class and linguistic ability to impede access to high quality justice service
i) Detailed discussion of data needs and the many obstacles that researchers face when trying to conduct research on these
issues in Canada
ii) Academic community must play more of a leadership role and help establish a research agenda that will facilitate the
development of effective policy initiatives
In October 2002, the Toronto Star newspaper published numerous articles on race and crime. These articles revealed that black people
were highly over-represented in some offense categories (such as drug trafficking). It claimed that this consistent over-representation
means that police engage in racial profiling and minority offenders treated more harshly after arrest compared to white people. This
article created huge controversy. The CJ reps denied all blames regarding racial profiling. Critics, on the other hand, argued that black
people were over-represented in arrest stats because they simply engage in more criminal activity than other people (not because of
A FOCUS ON INTERSECTIONS
The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the limited Canadian research on race, crime, and criminal justice and highlight that any
understanding of this issue must explicitly focus on how race intersects with other important identity markers- including social class,
gender, age, immigration status, religion, language, and sexual orientation.
The paper is divided into four broad topic areas within criminology:
1) Criminal offending
2) Bias within justice system
4) Access to justice
Important intersections between rave and other identity markers are discussed within each of thiese broad topics.
The paper concludes with a discussion of important data needs and potential obstacies Canadian researchers face with trying to
conduct research in this area.INTERSERCTIONS AND CRIMINAL OFFENDING
Author proposes that future research on race and crime focus on four different explanatory frameworks.
Each model gives very different explanations for the apparent relationship between race and crime, which in turn have dramatically
different policy implications. Unfortunately, these models have yet to be adequately tested by Canada's researchers.
Importation Model Cultural Conflict Model Strain Model Bias Model
What is it holds that immigrant, racial holds that majority of holds that experiences of holds that over-representation
minority offenders are immigrants arrive in racial minorities within of racial minorities in crime
already motivated criminals Canada with absolutely Canadian society are the statistics is not the result of
when they arrive in this no intention of engaging primary causes of minority racial differences in criminal
country in criminal activity. but crime. They are more likely behaviour. Rather, such
some immigrants to be unemployed, have low differences are the result of
maintain cultural or household incomes, and systemic and overt
religious practices that suffer from discrimination. discrimination within the
conflict with Canadian These negative life Canadian justice system
law experiences produce both
absolute and relative
deprivation and that such
deprivation can push some
people toward criminal
Variables focuses only on intersection focuses on intersection Focuses on intersection
of race and immigration between race, c