Textbook Notes (378,431)
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Anthropology (537)
ANTA01H3 (189)
R Song (7)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTA01H3
Professor
R Song

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An Overview of the Human Genome
-genome: the alleles possessed by an organism
-the entire human genome has been sequenced as of spring 2003
-we still need to discover how the DNA builds an organism
-most of the genome is not composed of genes, possibly 98% of doesnt code for proteins
-this nongene material is called noncoding DNA
-used to be referred to as junk DNA
-some of it marks the beginnings and ends of coding sequences
-some serves to regulate gene function and activity level
-some jumps around carrying other DNA with it, allowing the genetic code to reshuffle its
elements
-this provides a partial explanation for why a small number of genes can produce such a
huge variety of proteins
-some noncoding DNA is made up of repetitive sequences that may do nothing
-some of our DNA may be very ancient, and some may have been transferred from microbes
-the coding sequences are not lined up neatly together but are scattered and interrupted by
noncoding sequences
-a single coding sequence might code for more than one protein, depending on just what
part is transcribed
-RNA does more than just converting the DNA code into proteins
-some classes of RNA have other functions, such as turning on or off some genes, blocking
the action of mRNA in producing a protein, shutting down genes and therefore acting as a
defense for viruses
-some genes produce proteins as their end products, but others have noncoding RNAS as
end products
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Description
An Overview of the Human Genome -genome: the alleles possessed by an organism -the entire human genome has been sequenced as of spring 2003 -we still need to discover how the DNA builds an organism -most of the genome is not composed of genes, possibly 98% of doesnt code for proteins -this nongene material is called noncoding DNA -used to be referred to as junk DNA -some of it marks the beginnings and ends of coding sequences -some serves to regulate gene function and activity level -some jumps around carrying other DNA with it, allowing the genetic code to reshuffle its elements -this provides a partial explanation for why a small number of genes can produce such a huge variety of proteins -some noncoding DNA is made up of repetitive seq
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