Neanderthal 600-350 thousand ya dating to pleistocene found in europe and parts of western and central asia. 200,000 ya the first homo sapiens population appeared in africa. Within 150,000 ya descendant had spread across most of old world , australia and later to america. African pop of h. heidelbergensis are most likely ancestors of earliest h. sapiens; direct ancestors of all contemporary human skeletally, genetically and most likely behaviorally, fully human. Upper paleolithic period begins in western europe around 40,000 ya -10,000 ya, profound changes of human culture. Africa continued their indigenous evolutionay development from premodern pleistocene. Denying earliest modern h. sapies originated from africa. Significant gene flow (migration) between geographically dispersed pre- modern pop were throughout. First evolved in africa and dispersed later, two versions. Complete replacement: modern pop arose in africa within 200,000 ya and migrated from africa replacing pop in. Andrew & stinger -> modern human appeared as a result of biological speciation. Intermixing occurred 80000-50000ya in the middle east.