Human Antiquity Textbook Notes

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Published on 29 Sep 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
ANTA01 – Chapters 1-7 Key Terms
Chapter 1
myth: a story usually invoking the supernatural, to account for some aspect of the world
past used this to answer where we come from – every culture has its own myth
highly variable, differs from culture to culture – based on imagination and creativity
may also not be based on observation from the real world
not even testable information or collected data
science: the method of inquiry that attempts to explain phenomena through observation and the development of
hypotheses
creation myths: A myth that explains the origin of the world and its inhabitants
has several functions:
1. it provides an account of the orgin of the world
2. it tells the story of a people's beginnings + their early history
3. it lays out the society's worldview and belief system
4. it explains the origin and meaning of people's rules of social behaviour
*tries to set up a social system – with some supernatural power – to maintain social order
- also reflects the environment, history + cultural system of the society
- affects how Western people studied the past
evolution: the systematic change over of organisms or social systems
- tries to study the origin and development of the human species with the basis of “E”
scientific method: the process by which phenomena are through observation and the development and testing of
hypotheses
two types of explanations:
1. induction: developing a general explanation from specific observations(of how things work)
2. deduction: the process of suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true
try to falsify the information – when trying to test the observations – critical testing+refining
after a hypothesis is tested and holds up as true – becomes a theory – a hypothesis that has been weel
supported by evidence and experimental testing
Anthropology: the holistic and integrative scientific study of the human species
science that focuses on humanity
usually studies the humanity's origin + biological&cultural development
focus on the past and present nature of the human ...
species – a group of organisms that can produce fertile offspring among themselves but not with any other
group
look for connections between the past and present history of that species
- believe that all human life is interrelated and can only be understood in those interrelationships
it is also the holistic (a study that views its subject as a whole made up of integrated parts) study of people
It is also divided into subfields, due it broad contents: examples:
1. cultural anthropology – the branch of anthropology that focuses on cultural behavior
- tries to study the nature of culture and its variety among different societies
- studies both living and past cultures – usually try to study with ancient texts
- basically is culture: the nongenetic means of adaptation, that people develop + pass down
- extrasomatic(nonphysical, beyond the body) means of adaptation
- use this to produce their own means of survival
- processes that account for change over time
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Document Summary

Chapter 1 myth: a story usually invoking the supernatural, to account for some aspect of the world. *tries to set up a social system with some supernatural power to maintain social order. Also reflects the environment, history + cultural system of the society. Affects how western people studied the past evolution: the systematic change over of organisms or social systems. Believe that all human life is interrelated and can only be understood in those interrelationships it is also the holistic (a study that views its subject as a whole made up of integrated parts) study of people. It is also divided into subfields, due it broad contents: examples: 1. cultural anthropology the branch of anthropology that focuses on cultural behavior. Tries to study the nature of culture and its variety among different societies. Studies both living and past cultures usually try to study with ancient texts. Basically is culture: the nongenetic means of adaptation, that people develop + pass down.

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