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Chapter 6

ANTA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Bonobo, Toyota Electronic Modulated Suspension, Jane Goodall

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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Chapter 6 Key Concepts
to determine behavior of humans, fossils and artifacts cannot be used, but inferences can be made
another source of information is living animals, that act as models for prehistoric hominids behavior
- able to interpret animal behavior patterns that may resemble those of ancient humans
Behavior, Adaptation and Evolution
able to compare primates, who we share a common ancestor (ex. All primates have prehensile hands)
- therefore our prehensile ability comes from the same ancestor and serves the same basic function
traits that are shared by multiple species through inheritance from a common ancestor are called homologies
* homologus traits don't share a common function
ex. Human arm and wing of a bat, have different functions, but are similar by virtue and have evolved from
the same source, the forelimb structure of an early animal
the wings of a bat and the wings of an insect, have the same function but have evolved independently and are
not similar in structure, this is called analogies (similar in function, but unrelated evolutionarily)
genes also pass on behavioral characteristics
- species with small brains, have little behavioral variation and have no flexibility – can't really think
- organisms with larger and more complex brains can vary in behavior to cope with different situations –
they have behavioral potentials/themes carried in their genetic codes – respond to environment by building
on these potentials
ex. Taking in information from the outside, remembering it and using the stored information in similar
circumstances – able to think
humans have built-in behavioral responses – but are not programmed for particular ways of expressing
understanding the nature and behavior of chimps and bonobo will provide insight on the origin of the
behavior in humans – behavior is homologous, similar behavior in humans and baboons are analogous
* our two species have evolved independently for 36 million years, possible for behavior to have evolved
separately, under separate environmental conditions – may be some variation in behavior pattern common to
the primates and inherited from a common ancestor
two similar behaviors as analogous increases as the species being compared becomes less closely related
- not usually derived from a common ancestor, but evolved independently as a trait of social interaction
* comparing analogous behaviors – can help point out possible clusters of adaptive traits
- need to understand that the more evolutionarily distant the species, the less useful the comparison
use species as models for the origin and evolution of human behavior by looking at the homologies and
analogies – other primates
ethology: the study of the behavior of organisms under natural conditions
- able to see how really adapted a species was + to learn the adaptations that our species today possess
the 5 named species of genus Papio, have been of interest to anthropologists because of its social
organization, having habitants in the East and South Africa, they very habitat of our early hominid ancestors
past: baboon society had a social order with large males being the dominate group, suggesting the ancient
hominids also behaved this way
* the dominance and power is not because they are males, but because of a “network of social alliances”,
where friendship exists among females and males, the friendship is very strong, that even male will aid his
female friend's infant even though he is not the father, BUT the social position of the males, may determine
who mates with whom
different social positions exist based on individual's experience, skill and ability to manipulate others +
mobilize allies
the most competition exists among the females in a troop who try to gain access to resources that are
necessary for survival for both them and their offspring
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