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Chapter 11

ANTA01H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Upper Paleolithic, Neanderthal, Kabwe

Course Code
Genevieve Dewar

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Chapter 11 - Premodern Humans
-most of the hominins in this chapter lived during the Pleistocene epoch (aka ice age)
-marked by periodic continental glaciations that had global climatic effects
-sea levels dropped hundreds of feet, and massive glaciers that were a mile thick covered the Earth
-when climate fluctuated, sometimes it was warmer
-at least 15 major + 50 minor glacial advances in Europe alone
-the glacial periods were mostly in places with Northern latitudes
- these oscillations affected Africa the most - during glacial periods, the Sahara Desert expanded, blocking migration to/from Sub-
Saharan Africa
Glaciations: when continental ice sheets cover much of the northern continents; associated with colder temperatures
Interglacials: when continental ice sheets are retreating; associated with warmer temperatures
Middle Pleistocene: 780 000ya - 125 000ya
Late Pleistocene: 120 000ya - 10 000ya
Middle Paleolithic: 200 000ya - 30 000/40 000ya
- roughly the same period in sub-Saharan Africa = Middle Stone Age
Upper Paleolithic: 30 000/40 000ya - 10 000 ya
-distinguished by major technological innovations, creation of earliest human art widely recognized as such + others
-best known from Western Europe but also known from central + Eastern Europe + Africa
-hominins were widely distributed in the Old World - Asia (China), Africa (North, South + East) + Europe (England, France, Spain,
Germany, Italy, Hungary + Greece)
-the premodern humans of the Middle Pleistocene were the ones who replaced homo Erectus
-earliest premodern humans had projected eyebrows, low foreheads, and sometimes had a thick cranial vault, which were all similar
to the erectus
-but unlike the erectus, they had an increased brain size, a more rounded braincase, a more vertical nose + a less-angled back of the
(occipital) skull
-these fossils were “archaic Homo sapiens” with later species being homo sapiens but since it was so diverse, they were
named the Heidelbergensis)
-found at Kabwe (Broken Hill), Zambia
-complete cranium, together with other cranial + postcranial elements belonging to several individuals
-had massive browridge, low vault, and prominent occipital torus - similar to h. erectus but also had a less angulated occipital region -
cranial vault bones are thinner and that cranial base is pretty modern
-Late - Middle Pleistocene
-these fossils were also similar to the ones found in Europe
-i.e.: Bodo, Kabwe, Florisbad, Elandsfontein
-more fossil hominins have been found here than in any other region
-time range extends the full length of the Middle Pleistocene + beyond
-these fossils had an increased cranial capacity, more rounded occiput, parietal expansion, and reduced tooth size
-Sima de los Huesos - contains more than 80 percent of all Middle Pleistocene hominin remains in the world
-these hominins showed several indications of an early Neanderthal-like pattern, with arching browridges, projecting
midface + other features
-i.e.: Arago, Petralona, Steinheim
Key Premodern Human (H.Heidelbergensis) Fossils from Europe
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