Homo heidelbergensis & Homo Neanderthalensis - Lec 7.docx

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Published on 28 Oct 2012
School
Department
Course
Homo heidelbergensis & Homo neanderthalensis
Tuesday October 23rd, 2012
Outline
2.0 mya to 30 kya
o Identifying species we know a lot about one but not the other
o Late australopithecines: homo erectus, h.neanderthalensis, h.sapiens clear knowledge
o H.habilis not clear knowledge … group as early homos?
o Lumped together because there are unclear information about them
o flourisiensis same species?
Environmental context
Homo erectus/ergaster
Homo heidelbergensis/ Homo rhodesiensis
Homo neanderthalensis
Timeline
400 kya-30/18kya
o When did h.sapiens develop
based on anatomy & structure
200 kya - know h.sapiens began
400 100 kya
o Archaic h.sapiens emerge
throughout Old World
300 kya
o Sima de los Huesos
200 kya
o Kabwe
o Levallois technique begins
160-50 kya
o Mousterian tool industries
150 kya
o H.sapiens, idaltu, Ethiopia
125-40 kya
o Neanderals found in Middle
East and Europe
120-90 kya
o Klasies River Mouth
80-90 kya
o Quafzeh
40 kya
o Anatomically modern humans
found in Europe
40-? Kya
o Upper Paleolithic traditions
begin
*Why we sometimes refer to these
species as archaic homos…
o We are the same species
capable of inter-breeding , but
we are sub-species only
We call Neanderthals archaic homos
o Group between Neanderthals
and h.sapiens early homos
Archaic h.sapiens (between h.erectus &
h.sapiens) h.sapiens
Pleistocene Background the Great Ice Age
Lower Pleistocene 1.6 mya to 780,000 ya
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o Homo erectus/ergaster
o Oldawan tool industry
Middle Pleistocene 780,000 to 128,000 ya
o H.erectus & early archaic Homo sapiens
o More advanced erectus
Upper Pleistocene 128,00 to 20,000 ya
o Late archaic (incl. Neanderthals) & modern Homo sapiens
Ice Age
y-axis = time (present at top)
glacial period
Great Ice Age = very cold
Extreme fluctuations
Rapid change in temperature
o Resulted in change and transformations in species
Homo erectus
2.0-0.5 mya?
Europe & Asia
o * Only in Asia that they continued unaffected by other species
Zhoukoudian Cave
o Advanced looking h.erectus
o Chinese
o Excavated by Black
o Fossils in China
o Thought were dragon bones crushed them
Eugene Dubois
o Indonesia
o Found Java man (h.erectus)
o Interesting because it was not found in Africa
Davidson Black
850-1000cc
o Early h.erectus had smaller brain size than later ones
Meanwhile, at the same time
Homo ergaster (‘workman’)
o Find specimens; more primitive than Asia
o Looked slightly different; so called it Ergaster
1.9-1.4 mya
East and South Africa
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Koobi-For a: Leakeys & White
o Olduvai Gorge
o Early pre-Australopithecus
Swartkrans: @ 1.6mya FIRE
o First evidence of fire
o Fire transformed everything
o Fire = light at night
o Socialization
o Transformation from trying to survive to socialize
Acheulian tools
Orthnognathic
o Flat-faced
Long low brain case & prominent brow ridges
o More robust than later erectus forms
o Looked like us
o Long legs, short arms, human like dentition
700-850cc
o Smaller brain sizes
o Larger brain size than h.habilis
Nariokatome Boy (Turkana Boy)
Most complete skeleton
o Nearly complete
12 year old boy
o 12-15 years old
o Fusion of long bones as evidence
o Knee bones not yet fused
o Caveat: based on development/growth rate of humans
Taller than modern humans
o Tall & lean (good increase in surface area in skin to sweat more)
o Taller and faster than humans
Well adapted to equatorial life
o Well adapted neck muscles long distance runner
o Only hair on top of head
o Developed sweat glands
Tool Industry
Acheulian 1.3 mya
o Firmly established at this time
o Much more advanced
Bifacial hand axes
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Document Summary

400 kya-30/18kya: when did h. sapiens develop based on anatomy & structure. 400 100 kya: archaic h. sapiens emerge throughout old world. 300 kya: sima de los huesos. 200 kya: kabwe, levallois technique begins. 125-40 kya: neanderals found in middle. 40 kya: anatomically modern humans found in europe. *why we sometimes refer to these species as archaic homos : we are the same species capable of inter-breeding , but we are sub-species only. We call neanderthals archaic homos: group between neanderthals and h. sapiens early homos. Archaic h. sapiens (between h. erectus & h. sapiens) h. sapiens: homo erectus/ergaster, oldawan tool industry. Middle pleistocene 780,000 to 128,000 ya: h. erectus & early archaic homo sapiens, more advanced erectus. Upper pleistocene 128,00 to 20,000 ya: late archaic (incl. Rapid change in temperature: resulted in change and transformations in species. Europe & asia: * only in asia that they continued unaffected by other species.

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