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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

2 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANTB14H3
Professor
Michael Schillaci

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Chapter 10: From Hominoid to Hominin
Hominins were among pioneering species
Spread of woodland and savanna led to evolution of first hominins about 6 mya
Beginning about 6 mya, hominins being to appear in fossil record
4-2 mya, diverse community of hominin species ranged through eastern and southern Africa
Different from any of Miocene apes in 2 ways:
oThey walked upright, shift to bipedal locomotion led to major morphological changes in
their bodies
oNew savanna and woodland habitats, new kinds of food became available- change in
chewing apparatus (teeth, jaws, skull) changed
Classified with humans in tribe Hominini
Is taxonomic unit between family and genus
Humans belong to family Hominidae that includes all great apes and genus Homo
5 categories of derived traits distinguish modern humans from contemporary apes:
owe are bipedal
odentition and jaw musculature are different from those of apes in number of ways. Ie. We
have wide parabolic dental arch, thick enamel, reduced canine teeth, larger molars in
relation to other teeth
ohave larger brains in relation to body size
odevelop slowly, with long juvenile period
odepend on elaborate, highly variable material and symbolic culture, transmitted in part
through spoken language
At the Beginning
genetic data indicate that last common ancestor of humans and chims lived between 7-5mya
during this period, first see hints of some of distinctive features that differentiate hominins from
apes- some evidence of bipedal locomotion, large posterior teeth, canine reduction
sahelanthropus tchadensis
oearliest known hominin has mix of derived and primitive features
oRift Valley of East Africa
oDiscovery implies that hominins had much larger range than was previously believed
oFossil is surprisingly old
oPossesses very surprising mix of anatomical features
oForamen magnum located under skull rather than back
oBrain is no bigger than chims 320-350cc, chim 400cc
oTeeth different than teeth of chims: canines smaller, upper canine not sharpened against
lower premolar, enamel is thicker
oFlat face, massive brow ridges
Orrorin tugenensis
oSecond early fossil with similarities to humans
oFemur, lower jaw, a finger bone, teeth fossils only
oHabitat mix of woodland and savanna
oIncisors, canines, one of premolars more like teeth of chims
oMolars smaller than A. Ramidus and later apelike hominins, thick enamel like human
molars
oArm and finger bones have features that are believed for climbing
Ardipithecus
oNorthern end of Rift Valley, in middle Awash region of Ethiopia
o5.8-5.2 mya, occupied by apelike hominin Ardipithecus kadabba
oMixture of primitive and derived dental traits, canine sharpens itself against first premolar
like chims
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Description
Chapter 10: From Hominoid to Hominin Hominins were among pioneering species Spread of woodland and savanna led to evolution of first hominins about 6 mya Beginning about 6 mya, hominins being to appear in fossil record 4-2 mya, diverse community of hominin species ranged through eastern and southern Africa Different from any of Miocene apes in 2 ways: o They walked upright, shift to bipedal locomotion led to major morphological changes in their bodies o New savanna and woodland habitats, new kinds of food became available- change in chewing apparatus (teeth, jaws, skull) changed Classified with humans in tribe Hominini Is taxonomic unit between family and genus Humans belong to family Hominidae that includes all great apes and genus Homo 5 categories of derived traits distinguish modern humans from contemporary apes: o we are bipedal o dentition and jaw musculature are different from those of apes in number of ways. Ie. We have wide parabolic dental arch, thick enamel, reduced canine teeth, larger molars in relation to other teeth o have larger brains in relation to body size o develop slowly, with long juvenile period o depend on elaborate, highly variable material and symbolic culture, transmitted in part through spoken language At the Beginning genetic data indicate that last common ancestor of humans and chims lived between 7-5mya during this period, first see hints of some of distinctive f
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