ANTB15H3 Chapter Notes -Hypertriglyceridemia, Indo-European Languages, Linkage Disequilibrium
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Big Picture on Evolution
• This was the famed ‘modern synthesis’.
• Genes may become inactivated but remain in the genome as pseudogenes.
• Charles Darwin,is remembered as the father of evolutionary thinking.
• Natural selection: Those most suited to their environment survive at the expense of those less ‘fit’.
> organisms produce more offspring than survive to reproduce.
• One of the strongest cultural systems in language, which shows clear signs of evolutionary change
• A change in DNA might be beneficial but is usually harmful. Often, though, it won’t make a blind bit
of difference. This is known as a neutral change.
Living things fall into three major divisions: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
Archae: Although single-celled and lacking a nucleus, genetic comparisons suggest they are
closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria.
Hox genes: These are ‘master control’ genes that coordinate the activity of many other genes.
found throughout the animal world
No sweet tooth: cats are indifferent to sweet things because they cannot taste sugar- a gene coding
for part of the sugar receptor is pseudogene
People were shorter than they are now. We do seem to be getting taller – but that’s due to better
diet rather than any evolutionary change.
Mixing pots: Virus genomes can also swap bits of their genome with one another.
‘primordial soup’ model: Stanley Miller’s famous experiment in the 1950s, where he mixed some
simple chemicals, applied a strong charge, and stood well back; he managed to create complex
‘biological’ compounds such as amino acids.
A popular new idea is that life emerged at hydrothermal vents.
Creationism is a faith- based position that holds that life/people were created by God.
Creation science was a move to position this kind of thinking as legitimate science.
Intelligent design (ID) attempts to raise the same issues but without including a religious
dimension by not specifically saying that God is the intelligent designer.
Darwinian views of evolution imply that all aspects of the biology of organisms must be adaptive –
providing some kind of selective advantage – otherwise they could not have evolved. Applied to
humans and their behaviour, this is known as evolutionary psychology.
Wallace outlined his theory in a letter to Darwin. Darwin feared being scooped, but also did not
want to cheat Wallace. He consulted eminent friends, who suggested that
Darwin then set about describing all his evidence, which he published in On the Origin of Species in
An early influential idea was that animals preferentially help their relatives, who share some of
The more closely related they are, the more likely they would be to collaborate.
Game theory studies, which explore people’s altruistic or selfish decision-making in various