1)Film: “Ongka’s Big Moka”: this movie showed the way of gift giving. So
if a pig was given to sum1, they wud get it back with interest.
2)Economics: concrete set of activities and organizations through which a
society patterns the flow of goods and services.
3)4 principles of economics: A) humans need goods and services (individual
needs vary). B) Goods and services have multiple uses. C) Goods and
services are scarce. D) Obtaining goods and services requires an expenditure
of energy which is limited.
4)Economic anthropology: analysis practise of motivation behind and
meanings attached to exchange. They relate other cultural ideas and
structures to economic systems. For example, Kinship, gender etc... They
also look at the beliefs of these economic exchanges. Not just non-Western
practises, they also look at Western capitalist practices. For anthropologist
capitalist system is no more natural than any other exchange system. They
will not assume that capitals are just what they are. This became an area of
study in the 1960’s
5)Malinowski: made early efforts on economic anthropology. Anthropologists
have found out that economics has an effect on the society.
- It was since him that anthropologists figured economic systems r interlinked
with other systems
-1922- Argonauts of the Western Pacific
There was sense of social evolution
Economists arguing that trade in “primitive” societies was simple n
Malinowski believed it was ethnocentric
Cuz Tobriands had many activities that cud be described economic
6)Gimwali: a kind of market exchange such as pigs, vegetable and other foods
were traded and people could bargain for better deals.
7)Laga: payment for magical prayer performed by non-relatives.
8)Pokaka: payment for magical prayer performed by relatives or a kind of
tribute paid to a superior usually in yams or some similar food items. These
9)Kula exchange: exchange of necklaces n hand bands made of shell
-jewellery traded among chiefs, had no utilitarian value
ono practical value but a men’s symbolic value
cuz it confirms the status n political presence of ppl exchanging
-when the trade took place the islands were not close to each other. There
were long and dangerous voyages to change to the village chiefs. They don`t
have value but it means symbolic value it was symbolic because it showed
the status of the people who were involved in this exchange. Malinowski
argued that the kula exchange partners have demonstrated the following: a)
mutual obligation between partners b) complex organization for the
exchange c) behaviour that is rational within its own context or society. One
major point to remember is generosity was a virtue; tobrianders gave in
order to posses; in order to get the necklaces they had to be in the exchange.
The opposition of this happens in the western states for example if i want to
get rich I don’t have to give what i have.
-Required organized work with particular aims
-Desire for wealth n ownership
-Concept of credit
oInvestment of time n energy supporting the infrastructure of trade
-Financing of voyages
-Quote by Malinowski: “Kula is at a border line between the commercial n
-Economics overlap with religion, kinship, etc.
-All economies do this, we tend not to recognize them
-Ex: with religion: any church will have ideas abt how moral it is to make
money, to be greedy, to give money to church
10)Karl Marx: huge influence in a variety of fields. He was unhappy with the
philosophers he wanted to tell about the time not exchange, he wanted to
change the world. Fredrick Engles and Marx wrote `the communist
manifesto``. He wrote a book titled `` capital`` he did a detailed analysis of
work in Britain. This was during the industrial revolution a lot of factory
worker, mining at this time, long hours no pay, child labour. The pay they
got did not help them live happily. They did not have enough money to meet
their basic necessities ppl died working. People moved from lands and into
the cities. He did not like what he saw so he wanted to change this. And it
was necessary change he wanted to conduct a social analysis what was both
empirical and theorically sound. What he did was what anthropologists
would do today he took empirical data and made a theory out of it. He came
up with social classes. He divides them into three classes Bourgeoisies,
Proletariat, and the others which includes the: petite bourgeoisies
lumpenproletariat and peasantry farmers. His solution was the elimination
of private property.
11)Bourgeoisies: derived their power and status from owning the means to
produce wealth. Basically they used their money to exploit labour and gain
more money. In the case of the factory the owner would be the bourgeoisies,
he would want to maximize their profits but the workers want to maximize
their salary there is an inherent tension between the two.
12)Proletariat: owners of `labour power` labour power being the physical
ability to do work but they don’t own property. Therefore, they have to work
for the bourgeoisies that have money. That have to enter into wage labour in
the case of the factory it would be the workers who would be the proletariat.
The wages are two low to save up to gain property they do not get sufficient
income therefore, they are exploited this is what Marx means when he
mentions ``exploitation is inevitable`. Class conflict is inherent to the
capitalist system say Marx it is a system that one cannot escape. Factory
workers want more money; factory owners want more money to eat more.
13)Petite Bourgeoisies: these are the small business owners the artisans. They
own some property but they do some do the work themselves.
14)Lumpenproletariat: these are disgarded ppl beggars fro example prisoners,
15)Historical Materialism: a way of conceptualizing history based on material
economic forces is a Marxist view. What he wanted to do was write history
of workers lives, unlike other history books that were based only on the
elites and which war happened when he focused on the material conditions
of ppl`s lives. The basic idea is that throughout history ppls ideological
practices and experience are linked to their material environment. Marxist
also saw that conditions change over time they are not static. Marxist wanted
to change the Western states he also said ppl can only realize their potential
in a free society he means in a society where there is not poverty, misery and
political oppression. Their emancipation required a change in the material
conditions. He did not want to operate it in pamphlets or articles.