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Chapter 9 study guide notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Genevieve Dewar

Chapter 9: Homo Heidelbergensis, Neandertals, and the middle Paleolithic *Erectusergaster heidelbergensis Neanderthals Homo sapiens Archaic Homo sapiens or other Species? H. sapiens are not as robust as its predecessors and has specific cranial architecture During middle Pleistocene (800-120KYA) were hominins that differ from EE yet did not have all the traits of modern humans o Like ee the face and brow ridges were large and the cranial vault was thick. Brain size was larger, the braincase was rounded and the back of the cranium were more rounded archaic H. sapiens (similar yet different) These people believe Neanderthals are sup-species of modern human, H. sapiens neanderthalensis Other believe that Middle Pleistocene fossils in Europe and Africa are assigned to H. heidelbergensis ancestor to Neanderthals and H. sapiens H. antecessor may be an extremely early form of H. heidelbergensis Sima de los Huesos = pit of bones o The findings show degree of variation; cranial capacity ranges (1125-1390 cc), overlapping the upper end of the range for ee and lower end of the range for sapiens o Bones display a mix of features, some typical of ee others of species, including some incipient Neanderthal characteristics consistent with heidelbergensis o Sample did not show no more SD than displayed by modern humans Swanscombe and Steinheim skulls are large and robust, with their max breadth lower on the skull and they had more prominent brow ridges, larger faces and bigger teeth compared to human Skull from Sale in Morocco had a small brain but looks modern from the back Various jaws from morocco and France seem to combine features of ee with those of European Neanderthals Levalloisian Technique tool making technique by which 3 or 4 long triangular flakes were detached from a specially prepared core. Developed by humans transitional from erectus to sapiens found widely in Africa, Europe, Middle East and China core shaped by removal of small flakes over its surface, following which a striking platform was set up by a crosswise blow at one end of the core of stone. Then the platform was struck, removing 3 or 4 long flakes, whose size and shape had been predetermined by the preceding prep. What was left, besides small waste flakes, was a nodule that looked like a tortoise shell. This method produced a longer edge for the same amt of flint than the previous ones. The edges were sharper and could be produced in less time hafting: affixing of small stone bifaces and flakes in handles of woodused to make improved spears and knives new composite tools involved 3 components: assembly of handle or shaft, stone insert and binding materials acquisition and modification of each component involved planned sequences of actions that could be performed at different times and places emergence of distinct cultural traditions and culture areas portion of raw materials procured from faraway sources increases; whereas sources of stone for Acheulean tools were rarely more then 20 km away, Levalloisian tools were found at 300 km from the sources of their stones another development in Africa was the use of yellow and red pigments of iron oxide, becoming common in 130KYA o signals a rise in ritual activity, as may the deliberate deposition of the human remains in the Sima de los Heusos o ritual activity that presaged burial of the dead, a practice that became common in 100 KYA 1 www.notesolution.com
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