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Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3 NOTES.docx

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANTA01H3
Professor
Mary Silcox
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 3 NOTES HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION - principal of individual assortment o genes that code for different traits assort independently during gamete formation - mendelean traits o controlled by allels at one genetic locus o most are not seen as a visible phenotype expression o antigens  large molecules found on the surface of the cells  several different loci govern o codominance  Expression of both alleles - Myths on dominance and recessivness o allels do have an effect on the phenotype o dominant alleles aren’t always common - polygenic inheritance o more than 2 different phenotype outcomes like eyes skin o influenced by many loci o influenced by more than 1 gene o continuous variation - additive effect o each allele that codes for melanin production makes a contribution to increased leavels of melanin - continuous trait o measure something, the distrivution of measurments would continue uninteruppred from shortest extreme to tallest - genotype interact with the environment o that infuences phenotype - polygenic traits o influenced by enviro factors - mendeleain traits are less influenced theyre determined - modern evolutionary theory o modern synthesis  mutation and natural selection are opposties  evolution is a two stage process  productions and redistributions of variation  natural selection on variation  inherited difference differently affect the ability to reproduce o current definition of eviolution  evolution is gradual change through accumulation of small genetic changes  change in allele frequency in generations  Allele frequencies are indicators of the genetic makeup of a population (an interbreeding group of individuals)  A persons genetic composition is fixed  A population can evolve over time individuals cant  Short term effects microevolution  Long term effects macroevolution o Mutation  Types of mutations  Point o Has to happen
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