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Chapter 12

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Genevieve Dewar

Anthropology/Chapter12 Notes Background Info/Notes:  Neanderthal 600-350 thousand ya dating to Pleistocene found in Europe and parts of western and central Asia  200,000 ya the first Homo sapiens population appeared in Africa  Within 150,000 ya descendant had spread across most of Old World , Australia and later to America  African pop of H.heidelbergensis are most likely ancestors of earliest H.sapiens; direct ancestors of all contemporary human skeletally, genetically and most likely behaviorally, fully human  Upper Paleolithic period begins in Western Europe around 40,000 ya -10,000 ya, profound changes of human culture Approach to Understanding Modern Human Origins 2 major theories: Regional Continuity Model: Multi regional Replacement Model Evolution Milford Wolpoff: local pop Europe, Asia and - first evolved in Africa and dispersed later, Africa continued their indigenous evolutionay two versions development from premodern Pleistocene  complete replacement: modern pop  denying earliest modern H.sapies arose in Africa within 200,000 ya and originated from Africa migrated from Africa replacing pop in  significant gene flow (migration) Europe and Asia; between geographically dispersed pre- modern pop were throughout Andrew & Stinger -> modern human Pleistocene appeared as a result of biological speciation. African could not interbred with local non-African pop (potential for interbreeding very little actually took place) 2. Partial replacement: Neanderthal genes still present arguing against complete replacement interbreed took place, John Reletford 1-4% in modern pop outside Africa, contemp Africans no trace of genes; interbreeding occurred after modern humans migrated out of Africa - intermixing occurred 80000-50000ya in the Middle East  African pop have greater diversity from elsewhere in the world  Most molecular data come from contemporary species since DNA is not usually preserved in long-dead individuals  Researches sequence mtDNA of 9 ancient fully modern H.sapiens skeletons from site in Italy, France the Czech Republic and Russia  2010 , took 4 years, sequenced Neanderthal genome revealed some pop still retain some genes; interbreeding took place between Neanderthals and human-> partial replacement  Fred Smith: “asmiliation”, more interbreeding took place in some regions  DNA thousand of ys can be be obtained cold environment, warm degrades rapidly The Earliest Discoveries of Modern Humans Africa  200,000- 100,000 ya has been several fully anatomically modern forms  Earliest come from Omo Kibish in southernmost Ethiopia, skull (Omo 1) 195,000 ya this is the earliest modern human yet found in Africa  Omo 1 is essentially modern because of a chin, variety of modern human characteristics  Omo 2 is more robust and less modern in morphology  Later, Klaisies River mouth on the south coast of Africa and Border Cave, 120000-80000 ya  Early modern humans appeared in East Africa by 200,000ya had migrated to southern Africa by 100,000ya  Tim White , Later Middle Awash of Ethopia Ardipithecus and Australopithecus H.erectus  Herto fossils/ Homo sapiens idaltu: adult cranium, incomp
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